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Construction

MATERIALS SPECIFIC WEIGHTS

MATERIALS SPECIFIC DENSITY

CONCRETE RECIPES,FLOOR SCREEDS, MASONRY MORTARS

LABOR WORKS

TRANSPORT COST

EQUIPMENT RENTAL COSTS

ESTIMATE WORKS

TAXES COSTS, OPINIONS, BUILDING PERMIT

GEOTECHNICAL STUDY

TECHNICAL EXPERTISE

LABOR CONSTRUCTION DESIGN

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS SPECIFIC WEIGHTS

Steel round hot rolled, reinforcing steel with smooth profile(OB37), reinforcing steel with periodic profile (PC52), reinforcing steel with periodic profile and high resistance (BST500S)

Hexagonal steel, square steel

Hot rolled metallic profiles, T-profiles with equal wings, I-profiles, angle profil with equal sides type L

Metallic profiles type INP, IPE, UNP, HEA, HEB, HEM

Square pipes and rectangular tubes

Galvanized and black plain sheet

Black and zinc-coated stripe steel (platband)

Welded nets of steel

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS SPECIFIC DENSITY

Materials specific density: carbon steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, lead, brass, bronze, nickel, titanium, plastic (high density polyethylene HDPE, polypropylene PP and PVC)

INSTACONSTRUCT - CONCRETE RECIPES, FLOOR SCREEDS, MASONRY MORTARS

Equivalence between class resistance of concrete, concrete class and concrete mark according to the norms

Concrete recipes (guidance) for grades C8/10 - B150, C12/15 - B200, C16/20 - B250, C18/22.5 - B300, C20/25 - B350 casting in foundations, pillars, beams, walls (gal - bucket 10L, lop - shovel)

Concrete recipe indicative C35/45 for casting alleys, platforms, pavements (gal - bucket 10L, lop - shovel)

Indicative recipe for pouring to floor screed (gal - bucket 10L)

Indicative recipes to masonry mortars for walls M10Z, M5Z, and interior and exterior plasters, M10T, M5T (gal - bucket 10L)

INSTACONSTRUCT - WORKMANSHIP Prices presented do not include the VAT

ZONE 1 - Nigeria, India, Moldova, Egypt

ZONE 2 - China, Ukreine, Serbia, Thailand, Belarus, Tunisia, Bulgaria

ZONE 3 - Brazil, Argentina, Turkey, Romania, Russia

ZONE 4 - Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Lithuania, Croatia, Slovakia

ZONE 5 - Estonia, Hungary, Czech, Saudi Arabia

ZONE 6 - Portugal, Korea, Israel, Slovenia, Greece, Cyprus

ZONE 7 - Spain, Italy, UAE, Germany, France, Australia

ZONE 8 - Belgium, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Finland, Austria, Netherlands, Sweden

ZONE 9 - USA, Denmark, Iceland Switzerland, Ireland

ZONE 10 - Norway, Luxembourg

Excavation, backfilling, compacting - manual labor

Preparation concrete, pouring concrete

Mounting timber formwork and wood or metal panels

Assembly and trimmings (stretching, cutting, stirrups for carcases) reinforcing steel (RS) 6, 8, 10.12, 14.16, 18.20, 22.25, 28.30, 32 mm, welded nets of steel size 2x5, 2x6 m (mesh size 100x100, 150x150, 200x200 mm, thickness bars 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 mm)

Masonry mortar brick walls and stone walls

Metal fabrication - simple, complex and special

Demolition plain and reinforced concrete, precast tiles, manual and mechanical

Restoration of stone and brick masonry, repairing walls cracks

INSTACONSTRUCT - RENTAL TRANSPORT Prices shown do not include VAT. Fuel is included in the price.

Rental truck tipper 18, 24 m3, lorry 7.5t, concrete mixer, platform 20 t, trailers 40.50, 80 tons, concrete pumps 24, 36, 42, 48 meters pumping height

INSTACONSTRUCT - RENTAL EQUIPMENT Prices shown do not include VAT. Fuel is included in the price.

Rental mobile crane with maximum load 12.5, 18, 28, 45, 80 tonnes force

Rental fixed or mobile metal scaffolding, lift platforms with a diesel engine for working at height outside facade or indoor spaces, working heights 5, 10, 15m

Rental truck tipper, excavator, picon, bulldozer, backhoe, loader, autograder, road roller, dragline

Rental demolition hammer (pickhammer), air compressor, concrete cutter, drill, cut joints machine, sanding machine, vibrating plate, concrete vibrator with frequency converter

Plumbing

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

EQUIVALENTS OF WATER AND SEWAGE FLOW VARIOUS CONSUMERS

Qcalc WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE SYSTEM DEPENDING ON Dext

UNION WATER - SEWAGE FURNISHINGS

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - WEIGHTS STEEL PIPES WEIGHTS PER LINEAR METER INSTALLATIONS STEEL PIPES COMMON (SCH40)

INSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES STEEL OUTER DIAMETER - NOMINAL DIAMETER - INCH STEEL PIPE INSTALLATIONS

INSTACONSTRUCT - DIAMETERS CORRELATION HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE HDPE (POLYPROPYLENE RANDOM PPR) - COPPER - STEEL

INSTACONSTRUCT - EQUIVALENTS OF WATER AND SEWAGE FLOW VARIOUS CONSUMERS BATTERIES BASIN, WASHERS (kitchen sink), shower, bath tub, TANK FRAMES WC (TOILET), VESSEL BIDEU, URINAL, THE MACHINE dishwasher, WASHING MACHINE, TAP WATER SPRAYER GARDEN; FOR THE USE OF HOT AND COLD WATER FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES

INSTACONSTRUCT - qcalc WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE SYSTEM DEPENDING ON Dext FLOW RATES FOR THE CALCULATION OF WATER FLOW, RESPECTIVELY IN COLUMNS SEWAGE SYSTEM DEPENDING ON EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF THE PIPE (Dext). FOR 2 BASINS, 1 WASHER, 1 DUS,1 FALL, 2 WC, 1 dishwasher, 1 WASHING MACHINE (WATER qc=0.74 l/s, union D= 40mm and sewage qc=3,42 l/s, union PVC-KG D110)

INSTACONSTRUCT - UNION WATER - SEWAGE FURNISHINGS

Heating

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

HEATING HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION Unit HEATING Common measurement of thermal power is the watt (symbol W), but they found is and kcal/h (1kcal/h= 1.16W)

INSTACONSTRUCT - ESTIMATE FOR A CAMERA IN THE AREA CLIMATIC NORMAL; 1 EXTERIOR WALL SPACE WITH WINDOW 1/10 OF S, GUIDANCE N, ROOM HEIGHT H= 2.5m (S - effective surface area of the room;Q- necessary heat shield in Watti; the MP - square meter).

INSTACONSTRUCT - ESTIMATE FOR A CAMERA IN THE AREA CLIMATIC NORMAL, 2WALLS OUTER SPACE GLAZED 1/10 OF S, GUIDANCE NV INALTME ROOM H= 2.5m (S - effective surface area of the room;Q- necessary heat shield in Watti; the MP - square meter).

INSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES HDPE(PPR) - COPPER - STEEL

INSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES STEEL OUTER DIAMETER - NOMINAL DIAMETER - INCH STEEL PIPE INSTALLATIONS

INSTACONSTRUCT - WEIGHTS STEEL PIPES WEIGHTS PER LINEAR METER INSTALLATIONS STEEL PIPES COMMON (SCH40)

Electrical

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF ELECTRICITY AS A FUNCTION OF RATED VOLTAGE

NETWORKS OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE DEPENDING ON THE TYPE ELECTRICAL LINES

LOW-VOLTAGE NETWORKS DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WORKING VOLTAGE

NETWORKS OF LOW VOLTAGE ACCORDING TO THE CONSUMER

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN SECTION WIRES AND CABLES OF COPPER AND ALUMINUM WITH PVC INSULATION

CALCULATING POWER CONSUMPTION FOR LIGHTING, consumer electronics, ELECTRONICS, HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM, THE FORCE

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF ELECTRICITY AS A FUNCTION OF RATED VOLTAGE LV - LOW VOLTAGE, MV - MEDIUM VOLTAGE, HV - HIGH VOLTAGE, VHV - VERY HIGH VOLTAGE

INSTACONSTRUCT - NETWORK OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE DEPENDING ON THE TYPE POWER LINESUNDERGROUND ELECTRICAL LINES, OVERHEAD POWER LINES

INSTACONSTRUCT - NETWORK OF LOW VOLTAGE DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WORKING VOLTAGE AC - ALTERNATING CURRENT, DC - DIRECT CURRENT

INSTACONSTRUCT - NETWORK OF LOW VOLTAGE ACCORDING TO THE CONSUMER LIGHTING, OUTLETS, FORCE

Air conditioning

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

COOLING HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - COOLING HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATIONthe unit of measure for power refrigeration BTU/hr (British Thermal Unit per hour), but is recommended for calculations expression of power in kW (1kW= 3412BTU/h)

ESTIMATE FOR A CAMERA IN THE AREA CLIMATIC NORMAL; 1 EXTERIOR WALL SPACE WITH WINDOW AT LEAST ONE TENTH OF S, GUIDANCE V, ROOM HEIGHT H= 2.5m (S - effective surface area of the room; Q- necessary heat shield in BTU/hr; the m2 - square meter)

ESTIMATE FOR A CAMERA IN THE AREA CLIMATIC NORMAL, 2 WALLS OUTER SPACE WITH WINDOW AT LEAST ONE TENTH OF S, GUIDANCE SV, INALTME ROOM H= 2.5m (S - effective surface area of the room;Q- necessary heat shield in BTU/hr; the MP - square meter).

INSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES STEEL OUTER DIAMETER - NOMINAL DIAMETER - INCH STEEL PIPE INSTALLATIONS

INSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES HDPE(PPR)- COPPER - STEEL

INSTACONSTRUCT - WEIGHTS STEEL PIPES WEIGHTS PER LINEAR METER INSTALLATIONS STEEL PIPES COMMON (SCH40)

Finishes

NECESSARY RENOVATION MATERIALS

CONSUMPTION revamped MATERIALS

LABOR RENOVATION WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - NECESSARY MATERIALS

Indicative recipe to dig casting flaws in floor coverings made with cement LAFARGE ROMCIM

INDICATIVE recipes for the past three years since walls masonry M10Z, M5Z, and for interior and exterior plasters,M10T, M5T made with cement LAFARGE MULTIBAT

INSTACONSTRUCT - EQUIPMENT rental prices shown do not include VAT. Fuel is included in the price.

Mobile scaffolding Rental metal or platforms autoridicatoare with a diesel engine for work at height facade coatings outside or internal space, heights of 5, 10, 15m

Rental hammer destroyer pickhammer, compressor air, concrete cutter, drill, machine cut joints, sanding machine, plate vibrators, concrete vibrator frequency converter

INSTACONSTRUCT - LABOR prices shown do not include VAT

Masonry with mortar rock walls, walls and pillars, masonry brick cement (BCA, BCU, full, Porotherm

Metal Confectie simple, complex, special

Demolition concrete simple and armies, prefabricated, manual and mechanical

Masonry restoration of stone and brick, repairing cracks walls and walls

Gases

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

INCREMENTS OF PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

USERS FLOW NATURAL GAS (NG)

THE FLOW INSTALLED Qi FOR USERS GN ACCORDING TO THE DN

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - INCREMENTS OF PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

INSTACONSTRUCT - FLOW USERS NATURAL GAS (NG)

INSTACONSTRUCT - THE FLOW INSTALLED Qi FOR USERS GN ACCORDING TO THE DN FLOW RATES FOR THE CALCULATION OF 2 fires: A cooker AND A THERMAL POWER PLANT (COUNTER Q=4 Nm3/h, CRUISE CONTROL Q=5,03 Nmc/h RTG25-10, union DN= 25mm); NOMINAL PRESSURE METHANE GAS pn= 20mbar

NSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES STEEL OUTER DIAMETER - NOMINAL DIAMETER - INCH STEEL PIPE INSTALLATIONS

INSTACONSTRUCT - CORRESPONDENCE PIPES DIAMETERS HDPE(PPR)- COPPER - STEEL

INSTACONSTRUCT - WEIGHTS STEEL PIPES WEIGHTS PER LINEAR METER INSTALLATIONS STEEL PIPES COMMON (SCH40)

Green area

Unconventional renewable energy.

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORK HEAT PUMP ASSEMBLY

MATERIALS PRICES

Garden

INSTACONSTRUCT - TYPE OF ENERGY PRODUCED HEAT AND POWER

INSTACONSTRUCT - METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF THERMAL POWER SOLAR PANELS FOR DOMESTIC HOT WATER (MAB), THE CONTRIBUTION TO HEATING, HEAT PUMPS WITH AIR SOURCE AND geothermal

INSTACONSTRUCT - THE TRANSFER THERMAL ENERGY HEAT PUMPS FOR AIR, SOIL, ROCK, WATER

INSTACONSTRUCT - MODE OF INJECTION INTO THE NETWORK SYSTEMS ELECTRICITY PRODUCED ON GRID AND OFF GRID

INSTACONSTRUCT - THE SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY SOLAR - photovoltaic PANELS, WIND-turbines, HYBRID

 

ROMAN SC RETRASIB TO Sibiu ELECTROTEL IPROEB TO Bistrita SC ELECTROPLAST TO ITALIAN CABLE COMPANY SpA ICPE ACTEL S. A ICMET Craiova SMA Solar Technology AG Schneider OutBack Electrical Power Technologies Alpha Group Trina Victron Energy ISTAR Solar Solar S. r.l. Bernt Lorentz GmbH & Co KG Steca Elektronik GmbH Hakel Trade ACER HK AVARISA BSB Power SEASON IPROEB ELECTROPLAST ROMCAB Elbe OSRAM PHILIPS SCHNEIDER LEGRAND DIETZEL UNIVOLT SEASON-TRADE BRILUX PRODA BTICINO ELICA HI-LIFE PCE DABLEROM GLOBO LIGHTING Eaton Erco Lutron Philips Dynalite Bebarmatic Nedap AVI AMP Netconnect APTUS Software Avaya Baracoda BitDefender Cisco D-Link Datalogic Datamax-O'Neill DELL Fujitsu HP Guntermann & Drunck Intermec IBM Microsoft Motorola Solutions Nedap Librix Nexans R&M Radwin seagull Scientific Zebra Technologies ClearOne DVE GlobalMed Telemedicine lifesize LifeWatch Tandberg Cisco Pexip Radvision StarLeaf Vaddio VBrick AMX beyerdynamic GmbH & Co Biamp Systems Brightline C-nario Chief Domnisoara Pogany ClearOne Crestron DAS Digital BOSE Audio Professional 0-9 DNP Dolby Laboratories Doremi Technologies DVE Item One Eyevis Friendlyway Future Automation Harkness IconOne TAKE Technology body Jupiter Systems LG lifesize Lighthouse Lund Halsley Road Electric Mitsubishi NEC Corporation Orion Panasonic Panphonics Philip Mobelmanufaktur GmbH LCD Item One Extron Pro Display Projecta Projection design QSC Audio Products RGB Spectrum IT Samsung Sanyo Sanako Sierravideo Systems SMART Technologies Sommer Cable Stewart TvLog Vaddio VBrick Visual Tools Warema Wolfvision Visualizer Alustage YAMAHA PARIS Brightline Clay Paky ClearOne DTS High End Systems Tekno system JB Lighting MA Lighting charitable systems Structural TAC Spotlight telex Zero 88 Loewe Aiphone Abloy VIl retained on board shall Automatic Systems Axis Communications Bosch Security Systems BriefCam Dedicated Micros Guardall HID Honeywell Technologies Kaba microlight Milestone Systems Morse Watchmans Navtech radar Paxton Access Pelco Primion contingency which materialised prior Group Samsung Electronics Schneider Intercom Sicurit Alarmi Italy Tamron Supreme Teknosystem UTC wires & Security Esser by Honeywell KNOW Wagner Xtralis Ackermann AeroScout Schrack Seconet Merten jump" or leap t.a.c wago terminal block commend UK Kopos Schrack Technik Hensel Bals Elektrotechnik fluff Electrical Solutions EEC Weidmuller Beghelli ERGOM KLAUKE OMRON BRACO BACHMANN MAVEX Vimar energy Positiva RCB Hager Vortice Spotvision Viko Redo Group Fumagalli Tecnolux Arelux HELVETIC IMPEX Auraton Fischer fixing Systems VS Vossloh-Schwabe Mavex Comtec Elmark Neosim Energobit Tesar Electrical Transformers Tavrida Schreder Group GIE rittal CUTTLER-hammer KLAUKE TEXTRON GREENLEE WIHA KNIPEX 3F FILIPPI 3M ADVANTECH AEM amplyvox AMC Otopeni Alprom almalux lighting afriso euro-index appa arditi aros aspire ATX balluff banattika sc Baneasa to baumer brilux BM electrical betak belden beghelli elplast cablofil electrical power can & caom group Carlo Gavazzi circutor chauvin arnoux centralion celsa ceag contactors Buzau Cooper crouse hinds tools cuprom deif E+E Elektronik energy ducati draka Karl dose DHR Ebro electronic el bi elektrik he-co electromures Eldon solenoid elj electroalfa he didn't disqualify his mates International Electrotechnical electroplast electroprecizia Sacele endress Hauser emek kablo elvimex elster rometrics elproex NBC Label Assi elektroelement eurosmc SMC eurotron instruments EPG eximprod Fluke finder filippini ferraz shawmut extech instruments footmark frako frer general electric gewiss hameg instrument grafoplast gossen metrawatt feisty Camille Bauer cng instruments helukabel helu Kabel hensel himel icme ecab To cablel electronic MFI intfor infostar indelec IMSAT Bucuresti project imet iproeb isovolta group jean Muller Keller Gustav klauke kuhnke automation elster kromschroder kraus elektrotechnik kopos kolin klemsan kv lap laser applikationen Lapp Kabel lappkabel Lecroy legrand SGM Luxten lighting electrical lovato lorijn & loos multifunction lohuis mw mean Panagopoulos metrel monarch instrument morsettitalia m.Schneider shall I not disturb bettermann niedax group nexans narva MTS sensors technology omron ophir optronics optris ormalight osram phoenix contact royal philips electronics philips & Elbe pet communications Pirelli cables systems LLDCs relays stayed rittal rockwell automation systems take-burgess electronics rs components romtoroid romlux rofep Satel Oy schniewindt schrack energietechnik shinko technos stasto r.Stahl smar selum siren star your electric teaflex technoelectric terasaki turck automation trioda hifi shop tranberg Thalheimer transformatorenwerke thalheim tachometerbau tyco electronics umeb untel kablo vem vimar wenglor sensoric weigel vortice weidmuller weg werma signaltechnik Wurth

 

 

Welcome to www.instaconstruct.ro - Your guide in construction and installation works Optimized for tablets and mobile phones

This site provides you all information from construction and installation works. Here you can find everything you want to know: prices, labour, technical support - experience of 20 years of activity in the field - period during which we worked to install from heating radiators and sanitary installations to complex technological equipment, from foundations and metal fixtures to steel structures and board gypsum panels partition.

Before starting a constructions, many crucial aspects should be considered: distance to the street, distance from neighbors, position to cardinal points, positioning of utilities that should be close, industrial pollution, phonic pollution, sewage, possible systematization, shape of the land where the construction shall be placed, area safety or the green space.

The panel with construction denomination and data shall be displayed, missing of it attracting high fines from the authorized inspectors.

The construction should be built by authorized companies staffed with skilled people and quality material. Please be careful with the material quality and if it is used what is need (especially concrete, concrete steel and welded net) the construction strength is secured.

The material for construction shall be stored in safety conditions, because they are expensive and tempting for everyone. Even the leased equipment (bulldozer, excavator) staying over night should be watched over. The price of leased equipment is enough high so avoid their use without purpose.

We strongly recommend you to elaborate an informative financial calculation of the construction from the beginning so that the latter troubles are prevented, delays or even their incompletion.

When estimating a construction all aspects occurring in its completion should be considered, finishing and installations especially (electrical, heating, sanitary, sewage, gas, technological).

An important role in determination of thermal need has the quantity of heat needed to prepare the domestic hot water for a correct dimensioning of mural heating station, floor heating station, thermal group or heating boiler.

To some thermal equipment this is not necessary, because their operation is based on the priority of domestic hot water, heating being closed during its supplying (when a tap is open it passes on hot rate, heating being stopped and it returns to initial condition when the tap is closed).

There are cases when the need of water is very high and an incorrect dimensioning of equipment could not provide the domestic hot water to the optimum parameters. In this case it is recommended a boiler with hot water storage tank.

The boiler have two working rates:"winter rate" where both functions of the central heating are active (domestic hot water preparation and supplying of thermal agent), "summer rate" where the function of housekeepers warm water preparation is active. Some boilers are designed for heating only.

In the most of cases, the boilers have two heat exchangers: main (used for heating) and secondary (used for housekeepers warm water preparation). There are cases when the station is provided with a single heat exchanger (bi-thermal) where the thermal agent and the domestic hot water are prepared within the same purpose.

The used unit measure of the thermal power is kW, but kcal/h (1kcal/h=1.16W) used for calculation of thermal need is also very used.

For the thermal need of a building, there are many factors that should be considered: dimensions of rooms, climate area (warmer, normal or colder), orientation to the sun (especially to north), atmospheric conditions (wind), how many walls of the room are external and not the last, the flow of domestic hot water.

A very important role in dimensioning the heating installation is played by the expansion vessel, that should take over the expansion of water in installations and that depends of boilers, pipes and radiator water quantity.

A very important criterion in choosing a boiler is the draught (natural or forced) depending on the type of combustion room (open or closed). It has to be avoided the purchasing of a natural draught station requiring the connection to a chimney for burnt gas evacuation, even it is cheaper. At the same time the technical rules in force impose some conditions that are hardly observed by these ones.

The most used radiators are ''the steel one blocks'', presenting clear advantages in comparison to those of cast iron or aluminum (those of cast iron have a low thermal conductivity and those of aluminum increase the pressure in installation). With this kind of heating we achieve 16°C on the floor level and 23°C under ceiling. For bathrooms we recommend the use of port towel radiators, being a very small space.

The heating system the closest to the ideal distribution of heat in a room (22°C at the floor level and 19°C under ceiling) is that through the floor. Even it is the largest heating body for a room, it does not take of its space, allowing the freely arrangement of it. An important comfort factor is represented by the uniform distribution of heat into a room. This system provides 23°C on the floor level, very important for feet and body and 17°C under ceiling, respectively.

The most suitable micro station for the floor heating system is that in condensation. Even the price of such micro station is very high, the advantages are obvious (low gas consumption, high yield, safety in operation).

The circulation pumps should be correctly chosen, their under dimensioning leading to a poor circulation of the heating agent, and over dimensioning determining the occurrence of resonance phenomenon into installation, at radiators especially.

Heat losses of unprotected pipes increase progressively at the increased nominal diameters. The heat losses at the pipes protected (thermal insulation) by a 50mm layer decrease by 85% in comparison with unprotected pipes. The mineral wool shells may be protected by aluminum foil (they are used inside buildings) or unprotected by aluminum foil (in this case they have to protected by a zinc sheet against weather conditions, they are used outside).

Protection on synthetic rubber basis have excellent elasticity and durability, the extra fine cell structure providing an increased efficiency for the product, are sealed against humidity, avoid the condensation formation and are immune to low temperatures. They are used with the heating installation also, but especially for protection of pipes though which liquids with low temperatures pass through.

Use of mineral wool shells and rubber protection also reduces by 50% the installation time.

Within a building, every electrical circuit has a well-defined function. There circuits for lightening, circuits for plugs, specialized circuits (for electrical equipment). A maximum number of use points is allotted to every circuit. A single-phase circuit has a phase conductor, a null conductor and an earth conductor (for circuits for high consumer appliances and for which an additional shielding shall be provided, only)..

For domestic use the circuits are placed in a single panel, usually mounted at the dwelling entrance. For industrial consumers or civil building the distribution panels for lightening and plugs are named light panels. Further, the power panel for power receivers appears (high power electrical machines).

In order to avoid, extension of damages, all circuits of the electrical installation shall be protected against the default currents. The default currents are due to short circuits and overcharges.

The protection against the short circuit can be done with fuses or automate breakers provided with electromagnetic triggering.

The protection against overcharge is done with thermal relays when the circuits are provided with fuses or thermal triggers when on circuits automate breakers are installed. Within the circuits provided with fuses and thermal relays the switching element is a electrical contacts.

At the direct contact with an electric wire or terminal found under voltage or at the direct contact with a device under voltage as a result of a protection defect, electric shocks produce, very harmful for people. Pay attention when switching off the electric appliances when your hands are wet or you are in contact with water (very good electricity conductor).

The unit measure of cooling power of an air conditioning device is of BTU/h (British Thermal Unit per Hour), but for power expression calculation it is recommended the Kw (1kW=3412BTU/h).

A air conditioning system is that system allowing the heat exchange from a low ambient temperature to one of higher temperature, representing the reverse of the natural exchange.

The purpose of air conditioning device is to create a comfortable environment for the persons in a room through the control of air condition (temperature, noise, purity degree, smells, humidity).

The most known and cheap devices are those of ''split'' type. They contain an internal unit and another external connected through copper pipes with circulation of cooling agent. Most of them produce cold jets with the temperature about 5°C, many times very dangerous for people health if they are not placed in suitable manner.

For the big spaces or pretentious environment are used coolers (chillers) or treatment air stations. Too this case, the terminal devices (introducing air devices, grilles) get correct placed, averting the wrongly introduction of the stream air in a room.

A special case represented by the mural or ceiling fan coils used both for heating and cooling. This the most comfortable and effective installation for a building heating / cooling but expensive due to thermal equipment (boilers for heating and chillers for cooling).

Many aspects shall be considered in calculation of cooling power for an air conditioning system: room surface, its height, positioning regarding the cardinal points (especially to west side), room place (outside walls, last level of the building).

The main purpose when air conditioning systems are installed is to achieve a comfortable temperature in those rooms. To fulfill these requirements the following conditions has to be met: air shall be purified, heated or cooled, air humidity has to increased or decreased.

Inside the building should not exist power losses through the air distribution system. Except the reduction of power losses it is important that the condensation does not occur inside the installation, when the temperature downs below the "dew point".

The noises produced into the system should be also reduced to increase the comfort of people living in the building. In order to eliminate all these matters the air conditioning system shall be protected with elastomer plates.

A very important matter is the correlation between the position of finishing (protection of grit stone and faience) and installation channels (electrical, thermal and sanitary) and sanitary and thermal equipment..

The thermal protection of expanded polystyrene or mineral wool increase the thermal comfort both in summer and winter, elimination of condensation, dampness and mould.

Hydro protections of bitumen material providing protection against infiltrations are absolutely necessary in the contact area with outside. The bitumen material are used in civil and industrial buildings, to flat and sloped roofs, providing building, foundations and back wall water tightness.

The thermal hydro-protections of polystyrene make simultaneously both thermal protection and water surface protection. They form a continuous layer on all surfaces to be protected, have a good adherence to any kind of surface and do not need removal of protection applied before. They can be applied on ceiling, inside.

Use of thermal protected carpentry removes and losses of heat, reduces the phonic pollution and not the last is very esthetical. We recommend you to use it even it is more expensive but the advantages are obvious.

Providing a slope roof depending on the nature of material used as coating and the water draining slope on collecting tracks are essential and should be considered.

The sandwich panels provide an excellent thermal protection at slam protection thicknesses for outside and inside walls (for room partition). Installation is very fast and economic. Such a building built up of panels and metal structure represents a safety and money saving investment, providing an optimum climate both in summer and winter.

The laminated floor is recommended for dwelling spaces and commercial ones (its thickness giving it an increases strength to heavy weights and does not allow deformation), offering a particular atmosphere for such rooms. It is easy to install (double click jointing system) and maintain (allow cleaning by usual cleaning methods).

The gas pressure regulators are used in natural combustible gas installations to reduce the pressure and its maintaining in some limits, irrespective of variation of input pressure and the output flow within the limits given by the technical characteristics.

These shall be mounted in covered places, in normal environment, free of corrosion agents, protected against of bad weather, dust and vibrations. Upstream the regulator an impurity filter shall be mounted.

For small diameter of pipes the use of a filter incorporated regulator is recommended, cheaper and comfortable mounting variant.

When choosing a regulator it shall be considered mainly of output pressure, input pressure, flow, gas speed on output section, type of gas to be used, gas temperature, accuracy requested, pipe design diameter.

High density polyethylene pipes (PEHD) used in the natural gas distribution networks have many advantages: money saving, reduced weight, high strength to taps, mechanical loads, wear and tear of atmospheric agents, strength to low temperatures, perfect tightness, very low pressure losses at fluids passing through.

The track of distribution networks and outside use installations shall be, as possible, straight. The pipes of distribution networks are installed underground. When there are not conditions for underground installation, the steel distribution network pipes can be installed above ground (on outside walls of buildings, stable fences of concrete and bricks, metal poles and platforms) and those of polyethylene are compulsory installed underground.

Underground pipe entering into buildings (connections and couplings) is done above ground after the pipes come out at the ground surface, passing through the outside building wall.

The most used gas in the technological processes is steam. This is an invisible gas generated through addition of thermal power to the water in a boiler. Enough power shall be added so that the water temperature is increased to the boiling point. The extra power, without any other increase of temperature, turns water into steam.

Steam is heat transfer medium very effective and easy to control. It is used the most of cases for the transport of energy from a central source (boiler) to a number of consumers from the installations where it used for air and water heating and other processes.

The heat passes from a high level of temperature to a low level of temperature through a process known as heat transfer. Starting from the boiler fire place, the heat is transferred through the pipes of water boiler. When the higher pressure in the boiler pushes the vapor outside, this one heats the pipes of the distribution system. The heat passes from steam, through the pipe walls into the environment air, colder. This heat transfer passes a part of steam into water, named condensation.

The condensation is a by-product of heat transfer in a steam system. It is formed into the distribution system, in heating and technological equipment, as a result of heat transfer from steam to heated substance.

The condensation gathering in the lower side of steam pipes could be a reason for water hammer. At the same time, when the steam comes into contact with the condensation cooled under the vapor temperature, it can produce thermal shocks. The condensation, air and other gases resulted from the heat transfer shall eliminated by means of condensing pots.

Dimensioning of pipes into a steam system is determined by the initial pressure at the boiler and the pressure losses and the steam speed also.

www.instahelp.ro started building a house starting with the foundation of concrete, steel reinforcement mesh concrete, brick masonry and brick and roof, wooden farmhouse. Casco is building his house without finishing and without the outside of the roof. In this phase included the foundation, masonry and wooden roof structure. The house is made from red nor the equipment (cables, water pipes, sewerage, gas, utilities connections). Casa gray is a home semi-finished, front house red - at this stage it has extra insulation and waterproofing, roof system complete interior and exterior finishes without paint washable, parquet, tiles, electrical (only electrical circuits Without interupatoare, switches, sockets, lighting fixtures and lamps). House for sale represent the construction complete and include exterior finishes (covers the roof, windows, exterior plaster), interior (Interior plaster, tiles, flooring, doors access), plumbing (sink, toilet, tub, shower, bowl toilet tank, kitchen and bathroom mixer taps, fittings), heating (central heating, boiler, radiators, connectors), electrical equipment (breakers, switches, sockets, electrical networks, lighting fixtures). Turnkey houses are completely finished buildings inside and out with all mounted installations (water, sewage, heating, gas and electric, tiled and parquet, ceramic wall tiles, thermal insulation and vopsitorii.Puteti quickly assess the data provided by this construction new page construction, the amounts being determined according to the built area, ie usable area of ​​the house. The land on which to build the house should have a form as regularly, have utilities (water pipes, gas, sewerage, electricity etc.) nearby, to have an exit to the street or a driveway circulating in any season, is not in an area heavily polluted or near Industrial sewerage, which may affect the water table or soil of the field. In order to obtain authorization Construction required approvals from various institutions, paying taxes, a project of architecture, structure and installations, performing geotechnical studies or technical expertise. www.instahelp.ro displays indicative prices for these taxes and opinions that prices for design or technical studies mention that they differ depending on the area in which the land is located on which to build the house. In determining the estimated cost of a house, you should be aware of all the aspects involved in its execution, especially finishes and facilities of all kinds (electrical, heating, plumbing, sewage, gas). We recommend a financial account information from the beginning of construction in order to avoid disappointment later, delay or failure to complete the investment. 60% of the turnkey construction (end) of a house is on finishes, insulation interior (or exterior) and installations, representing the most expensive investment. The orientation of the cardinal points of the house is very important, which entails optimal climate inside and reduce energy consumption if properly chosen. Natural light and warmth of the sun should be used as much, but avoid placing windows to the west (in the summer sun is most powerful in the afternoon) or north (in winter the sun does not penetrate the house), resulting in additional costs for cooling or heating. Most conveniently, analyzing thermal comfort in the two extreme seasons, respectively thermal or electrical energy economy is an orientation of windows to the south, or as an alternative to the east. Before starting construction, check if the following conditions. Between the house that he built and the neighbor must be a minimum distance of 3m and 5m to a minimum street. The distance to the cold water supply pipes (drinking) is regulated to 3m 2m towards sewage collector tubes, 1.5m compared to gas pipelines (low pressure, intermediate or average) for a house without basement 0 6m compared to electrical cables or telephone, recessed. To find out what kind of terrain is where to locate the building and lay the foundation appropriate to the nature of the earth (hard, clay, sand or swamp) requires a geotechnical study. This is very important, structure of the house will be designed based on the results. So from the beginning avoid problems of soil composition, which may arise throughout the construction, or more dangerous after their completion. For efficient use of land, house built vertically, with one floor or attic, or both, depending on the surface area needed. Horizontal construction would reduce space for a garage, a garden with flowers and shrubs, a terrace, a gazebo, a children's playgrounds and a swimming pool (depending on the investment and financial strength of the owner) .In function building material used in building a house, they can be of wood, brick or BCA. Houses with wooden structure with walls coated in interior drywall and exterior OSB, with thermal insulation of mineral wool between the two layers, took a swing high in recent years due to their cost decreased (30% vs. the masonry). However, the total number of new homes built in recent years, they have a small percentage is directing investors' preferences for those of brick masonry and brick, with concrete structural frame. Porotherm brick bearing is the most used, with clear advantages over BCA (quite expensive and significantly lower mechanical properties). Pay attention to the quality of materials (ask for certified quality technical book of the construction, according to specifications) and if you put in the work that must (especially concrete, OB, PC and mesh) that provides resistance construction. Same for timber - to be first quality cubic content respectively (timber volume in cubic meters). It is preferable to buy the necessary materials work together with the executor or purchase only to let it out, avoiding wasted time and wasted money looking for a reliable supplier and prices. After purchasing these materials store them safely, because there are too cheap and amateur use them as the foundation excavations destui.Pentru house we recommend renting an excavator due to the large volume of earth to be removed. Watch carefully so as not overfished digging depth of the project. Try to use more efficient equipment rent, to not stay unnecessarily in front lack of work or other problems arising during the works. And stationary pays as operating hour. You can mix in some cases with the manual mechanized excavation, where there are bottlenecks in the excavator has acces.Dupa obtaining construction permits and permits for site organization, must be exposed to the view pane (dimensions: 80cm length width 60cm) in displayed: name, their name the designer, contractor's name, the number of building permits, permit issue date and who issued it, the validity of permits, construction start date or completion date of construction. If not mount this panel to view or it does not contain all the information listed above, the risk of large fines from authorized inspectors (the State Construction Inspectorate - ISC). To rent the machines used to cut or leveling land (location house), you should take into account and their costs, calculated from departure at the company who rents machinery and to their return basis (roundtrip) and not cost effective working hours. Whether they have a longer and there is no way Machine travel or the distance to the base rent is higher and transport is very expensive, you need to be guarded him during the night. For a wheeled excavator rental price (depending on the distance to the place of use) is 125 lei / hour for a backhoe 75lei / hour, and for a bulldozer tracked 150 lei / hour. If prepared concrete on site using a mixer to achieve a certain brand of concrete need to add in certain proportions elementary components: water, sand and gravel, keeping each time the same amount of portland cement composite (a bag of 50kg). If you want to get a higher grade concrete add more gravel and reduce the amount of sand or a smaller class increased the volume of sand and minimize the proportion of gravel. The amount of betonl obtained decreases as the concrete is strongest brand (from B50, used as concrete B350 and B400 equalizing the concrete for foundations demanding tile or high traffic roads). Recipe Enlarge obtaining the concrete used to build a house (B150 - 21 buckets of 10l) is: 1sac cement, 3.9 buckets of water, sand buckets 11.1 5 buckets pearl (sort 3-7mm), 4 8 buckets gravel (sort 7-16mm), 4.6 buckets gravel (sort 16-31mm). The concreting should be aware of these rules and observations from practice: formwork and reinforcement works to be executed properly, the height of freefall concrete is not greater than 1.5m, the temperature at the start pouring concrete between 5 and 30 degrees Celsius (castable and lower temperatures if the concrete is composed of special additives) to be wetted surfaces in direct contact with fresh concrete when poured over an old concrete it should be slightly chipped and then moistened for better grip, reinforcing steel concrete mesh is completely embedded in concrete, do not beat with a hammer or shake reinforcement during casting immediately after casting compacting concrete mechanically (with a vibrator for 30 seconds) or manually (a year or metal rods). If prepared mechanically poured concrete to mark its station beware (be B100, B150, B200, B250 that most rarely used, B300 or B350). Ask the provider (in this case the driver CIFE) opinion cargo carriage and sign it every time in the right recipient. Check if signed by the supplier. This notice must be accompanied by a standard form (declaration of conformity or certificate of quality), which testifies that the concrete has brought all the requested material properties. If required by the designer house (usually to the construction in areas with Seismic high) or you are not convinced of the quality of the material provided, ask sampling for analysis of physical and chemical properties and checking mechanical stresses according respectiv.Incercati concrete brand concrete structure where you can purchase the house from the concrete station nearest the location of the building. Use a concrete, if the place can be reached by pouring concrete or concrete pump you pour the first floor or in an inaccessible location. If you have a large volume of molten able to prepare concrete on site using a mixer (respecting the proportions desired type of concrete components), and finally transport it using buckets where necessary. Formwork and concrete demoulding are two important tasks that must be performed correctly to obtain a quality concrete. Outer shell is made first, and then install reinforcement and formwork final interior. Stripping works will start only after it has reached the required adequate strength concrete brand, according to regulations in force. Seven days after surgery finishes pouring concrete is workable (soft) and protected against premature drying, freeze and possible shock or vibration. Immediately after the concrete it must be protected to obtain a homogeneous structure, surface element (reinforced concrete for foundations, columns, beams, belts,, supporting walls or simple prefabricated foundations and leveling or dig) should be smooth, avoiding the risk of the phenomenon of segregation. This operation is performed by maintaining the mold for 7 days by covering with protective materials kept damp (tarpaulins, mats, moist layer of sand) through the application of protective films and periodic spraying with water. Manual preparation of concrete on site try to use clean water (no organic suspensions, inorganic compounds, oil, grease or oils), preferably from the drinking water supply network. Both sand and gravel aggregates (ballast, Pearl, gravel, boulders, stone) must be sorted and washed grit. If you use these units immediately after sorting (when they are still wet) and after rain or watering accidental amount of water in the concrete recipe is reduced so as to obtain workability mark. Using excess water lowers the durability. The concrete preparation manually avoid underdosing amount of cement recipe. This lowers the properties that mark and consequently to reduce the durability of concrete construction, causing the appearance of cracks, damage, breakage or house collapse due to inability to take orders concrete structure. We recommend using the resistance elements only concrete prepared mechanically to the state, or if cooking on site to fully respect recipe cement manufacturer on the packaging During construction work you need the services of several machines: excavator for foundation house and digging ditches for water HitPark sewerage network, loader type WOLA for loading earth and rubble, bulldozer or backhoe to push the earth and land leveling, crane or HIT handling construction materials and pipes for plumbing exterior propelled transport the excavated earth or sand, crushed stone, pearl, screed or mortar, concrete mixer transport, truck transport materials. A percentage of the construction that is the expenditure accomplish with OS (site management). These range between 1% and 5% of the total investment, depending on the complexity and duration of execution of works. The value of this coefficient must cover costs barracks fully equipped (if possible with minimum necessary) for workers, and for storage of materials, connection to utilities (cold water, heating, sewerage, electricity) to ensure working conditions and living standards (if it lives in them) workers decent - as stipulated in reglemantarile organs (inspection and labor protection) and obtaining the building construction provisional (temporary) from authorized institutions (primary, utility providers, ISC). A very important role in building a house you have the materials. Almost 70% of the total price is given by the value of their investment. To be able to start construction work in good conditions, where will be done with a specialized company with a legally enforceable contract, the beneficiary must pay a deposit of 15-20% for the purchase of materials and site organization, performer . This advance may not pass it on if you work on own with a team of craftsmen and will personally oversee the purchase of materials, or if you work without a contract with a company (illegally case) .Sapatura (manual or mechanized) should be made compulsory to support banks to prevent their collapse because of rain and thus lost time removing earth, foundation pit collapsed house after these slides. If the house has a basement provided the depth to pour the foundation must be at least one meter, representing the depth of the soil does not freeze and that depends on the climate of the place where the construction is located. Construction materials, especially cement bags should be kept in optimal conditions to preserve quality. To not be penetrated by moisture should be stored in closed and dry, to be placed on a pallet timber or plastic and avoid as much as possible to support or their location near the exterior walls. For a better maintenance avoid direct contact between the bag and floor storage enclosure (storage room, garage or basement). When designing the house should be aware of the height of the room (to be at least 2.5 m). Another suggestion is related to the provision of at least two bathrooms (one main of at least 4.5 square meters, and the other, called secondary or service, at least 2.5 square meters). Baia service should be located on the ground floor to be used easily by guests and the other to the floor or attic, if construction has at least one level. If house (villa) has just downstairs bathroom service as possible be located near the living room. Both bathrooms should be equipped with ventilation windows to your exterior.Hotarati before preparing the draft architecture as place the rooms of the house (kitchen, pantry, closet or bath, toilet, office or work room, lounge or bedrooms). Draw up a plan of the house (a drawing hand) and show him your architect Along with these try to find solution for the house you want to build. Although they can make some corrections and changes during project design documentation or even to completion (but no major changes involving structural strength), we recommend you avoid these changes that may significantly delay the date of final reception of the work. Infrastructure construction site in which it is located is made and the access road to the house from the road or pavement and walkways its backyard. Their realization is made with pavers placed on a layer of sand, bordered by a row of curbs on both sides. A very important thing is the installation of paving technology, which should present a slope drain rainwater that can retrieve fallen in large quantities per sqm. For this roadside culverts will be installed to collect rainwater and send it to the channel. Sewerage house will run from KG PVC tube (free flowing) mounted in the trench at a depth of at least 0.9m (to prevent freezing - it deep soil does not freeze in normal weather conditions) on a layer of sand, but this share may increase depending on whether leaks in the basement. Between water pipes and sewage pipes must be a distance of at least 1.5m. In order to achieve free flow to sewer street (city or village) sewage pipes must present a slope. If you can not make it practically street slope or if sewage collector pipes is over quota, it is necessary to pump wastewater. If the area is built house no network channel, or whether it is at a great distance and the cost of connecting the pipe duct that collects the runoff and sewage dwellings (sink, toilet, washing machine, bathtub, shower or toilet and bidet or garage and gutters - garden or roadside access) to sewer street is not justified financially, then it will build a concrete septic tank which will take over the tap water dirty cat and all drains. A septic tank for a family (3-4 people) is a facility buried in the ground with the following components: an inlet tube, a tube output, a 20-25cm thick layer of sand, a layer of gravel 15-20cm thick tube groundwater drainage, submersible pump, stinky lift or drained water drain tube. Tubes set up this type of groove are made of plastic materials that can take maximum security in all sewage and runoff house. Drinking cold water pipe or sewer pipes are mounted in the ground, in different trenches at 1,5m distance. There are some case (quite common in building houses on land with opening less than 10m) in which both water pipe and the sewer are installed in the same trench, due to the reduced space of the house to fence the property, representing the most convenient route in this situation. In this ditch, his butt is mounted on a bed of sand sewer pipe, filling the earth is carried on aprox.1,5 m vertically and then install the cold water to a depth of at least 0.9m from the soil surface to prevent freezing during cold season. Cold water supply is the distribution network through a branching. For outdoor water pipe, which is mounted buried tubes are used for high density polyethylene (HDPE) PE80 (SDR17.6 -6bar; SDR11 - 10bar) or PE100 (SDR27.6 - 6bar; SDR17 -10bar). SDR - Standard Dimension Ratio - is the ratio of nominal outside diameter and nominal thickness for PE tube. If the water main is made of steel tubes PE coupling is achieved by means of a transition piece (adapter OL-PE). On entering the courtyard will provide a manhole lid that will be installed in the meter (meter) and cutoff valves (closing) .After achieve excavation, we recommend leveling bottom of the trench with a layer of sand, which will place the tube in PE for water. After laying the pipe, the empty space left between the pipe and trench walls are filled with soil selected (not exhibiting rough - stones, boulders or other material having a roughness higher surface. For a lifetime of larger pipe after laying on the sand bed, free space is filled with a layer of sand 15cm and above it will sit ground finely trodden, avoiding damp ground or shore. In special operating conditions are used when laying tube geotextiles (textile porous made of polypropylene, polyethylene or polyester used in construction works being in contact with soil or other materials). If there is no drinking water network near the house or the water quality is bad (not filtered and treated appropriately, showing a taste and odor), have drilled a well to groundwater (from tens of meters to over 100 meters, depending on the depth of water is found in the area). Such a plant for water collection consists of: PVC tube especially for wells, submersible pump, pipe PE water, manholes, storage tank water connections filling and discharge fittings compression, Electric centrifugal, Bellow joint and bowl hidrofor. Correspondence new rules STAS old concrete class (concrete class): 2-8 / 3.5 - B50, C4 / 5 - B75, C6 / 7.5 - B100, 8/10 - B150, C12 / 15 - B200, C16 / 20 - B250 C18 / 22.5 -B300, C20 / 25 - B350, C25 / 30 - B400, road concrete BCR 3.5, 4.5, MORTAR M100T - SAPA, CONCRETE ACE C20 / 25 - FM40.In if the network connection is Water in the area is necessary household energy consumption monitoring via a water meter (version constructive screen wet or dry screen). Home for water meter is made of polyethylene, is insulated with mineral wool (which protects against frost of the whole), shows increased mechanical strength (is provided with ribs to strengthen). Cover is made of polyethylene equipping home and in the body of the insulating material is injected polyurethane insulation which increases the ability of the cover. This home is equipped with taps on the ball (sphere) for quick handling and a perfect seal. It is recommended installation of a Y filter impurities before the meter to protect it from rust or suspensions in water. The operations for fitting manhole sewer are in order: digging (excavation or manual) of a pit at the rate specified in the project, leveling its bottom, filled with a layer of gravel and sand compacting the layer, the introduction of PVC pipes, descent manhole pit, putting positions and achieve couplings PVC pipes, reinforcing piece extending home, staging upper adjustable fixing manhole cover (the roadway or carriageable), filling in layers with sand gap between home and shore land compacting successive layers of sand. PVC pipes used in sewerage networks outside the following characteristics: excellent chemical resistance, high protection from UV radiation, complete safety anti-toxic, features optimal hydraulic that remain constant over time, roughness very low (in the category of tubes smooth) mass washers, safety and simplicity, shows the connection systems with socket with sealing gasket elastomeric (which does not require specific equipment for assembly and welding in thermoplastic polifuziune, electro, fasteners and fastening and adhesives for bonding), productivity montare.Materialul wholesale plastic (they are made of tubes and fittings for sanitation) is PVC-U (non-plasticized polyvinyl chloride) is a readily flammable material, weather resistant (rain, frost, snow), the action of microorganisms all sorts and rodents, has a long life in use, dielectric properties and corrosion, creates a reliable sealing method of connection socket, resist the action of compounds inorganic and organic chemicals (salts, diluted acids and alkalis, oils mineral and vegetable, alcohol and hydrocarbons). Resistance to chemical agents above is determined by temperature. At high temperatures (over 40 degrees Celsius) material strength may decrease considerably. Depending on the resistance class street traffic, KG multilayer PVC tubes have 4 classes of rigidity (from lowest to highest SN16 SN2 rarely used applications): SN2,4,8,16 - SDR51, 41, 34 (SN ring stiffness represents, indicating resistance to crushing tube under the action of external loads and is measured in kN / m, SDR is the ratio between the outer diameter of the tube and its thickness, and show the free flow KG). PVC pipes and fittings assembled jack with rubber seal are of light and medium (for low working pressure), and those where the assembly is soldered or threaded (used at high pressures) are heavy type. SN2 PVC tubes - SDR51 have applications in external sewage networks, buried for domestic and industrial water, which maximum depth of laying (measured from the top of the generator tube) is 4m or 0.8m minimum depth being recommended Street traffic light and medium (up to 12 tonnes per axle), the correct installation in narrow trenches. Tubes SN4 - SDR41 is SN8 - SDR34 have the same applications, but the cable depth is 6m and are recommended for traffic street tough (maximum 18 tonnes per axle) or road traffic very difficult - road high traffic (up to 60 t axle ), with correct installation in narrow or wide grooves. Type excavation is closely related to the assessment of the nature of the load and terrain. Narrow grooves is the best solution for mounting PVC tube because it takes some of the load applied transverse tube. As in the case of PE pipes for water, place the bed, placing pipe in the trench, and filling the trench, are very important. The bed consists of gravel place selected 10-15mm diameter sand or gravel mixed with maximum diameter 20mm. The material used must be carefully tapped. Minimum height of the bed of place must be 10cm or D / 10 (D is the external diameter of the tube). The settlement PVC pipes and fittings sitting on the bed must be done so that there is continuous contact. Before you attempt the installation of PVC pipes and fittings, they must be in good condition and carefully checked for any defects discovery. When installing plastic pipes and PVC in particular, the uniformity of the land around the tube is fundamental for a correct load-bearing structures, as long as land, deformed duct contribute to supporting the imposed loads. The material used to build the bed of place will be distributed around the PVC tube and compacts manually 20-30cm Successive layers up to midline of the tube, taking care to verify the elimination of voids below the tube and the side of tube and be continuous excavation wall and compact. During such an operation will remove any hard pieces of material. The second layer will reach the upper pipe generator. Compaction will be performed with maximum attention. The third layer will reach a larger share of the market share 15cm upper generatrix of the tube. Compaction will be used only lateral and vertical ever. When installing PVC tubes, filling finals will be made using material originating from the excavations, clean pieces with diameters larger than 10cm and devoid of plant species (grass, moss, lichens, weeds, plants or shrubs roots). Hard compactable earth (the rich in peat, clay, or one that is frozen or soft - with mud and mud) should be deleted. Filling must be done by successive layers of 30cm, to be compacted and eventually watered down to a height of 1 m (measured from the top of the generator tube of plastic). Reticular polypropylene (PPR) is an ideal material for making green plants by cold water in a home. With a lifespan of over 50 years in normal operation (without being installed in environments with aggressive agents), this system provides perfect sealing of welds made by polifuziune, meeting the stringent environmental standards of environmental protection and Hygiene (is the recommended material for transporting drinking water), according to EU European Union (EU) and Romania (RO). Polypropylene (PP) is a plastic used with great results lately (thanks to its special properties) in installations of any kind. Polypropylene pipes are mainly used for interior sewage (leaking sink, toilet, tub, shower, bidet, WC) bathroom and kitchen. Or crosslinked random polypropylene pipes (PP-R) gray are used in heating, hot water and cold water. Random polypropylene pipes with aluminum foil insert (PP-R / AL) are used in heating. Polypropylene resin (PPR) Green is used in the potable water network. The method of connection may be achieved by threaded gluing or welding. Pipe High Density Polyethylene - HDPE (English translation HDPE or commonly HDPE high density polyethylene) used in the distribution network of water or methane, has several advantages: economical, light weight, high resistance to impacts and mechanical loads, durability to wear and atmospheric agents resistant to low temperatures, achieves a perfect tightness of welds performed by polifuziune or electro, very low pressure losses to the passage of fluids. Polyethylene water pipes are mounted both above ground and underground (buried) and the gas only buried. When installing radiant floor started operation is to clean the floors in order to eliminate all roughness, followed by installation of the expansion tape along the walls. It aims to take dilated at the walls of which will be poured screed and also serves to stop the flow of mortar Insulation. Thermal insulation is installed on the floors where underfloor heating system will be expanded polystyrene least 5cm for downstairs and upstairs and attic thermal insulation thickness 3cm will. This insulation is covered with a polyethylene film, which acts as a vapor barrier, but also protects the insulation. Installing the tubes PEXAL or PEX (XLPE) includes the following steps: cutting the tube using a cutting device with roll, calibration pipe by inserting and rotating axis calibrator until a circumference perfectly round tube and chamfering using mill already mounted at the end axis calibrator, fitting joints by squeezing a couple made up of two keys to achieve a perfect seal and flush the pipes of drinking water (in some cases chlorination of them), and finally sample hydraulic pressure cold or tests carried hot installation (where installation is for hot water or heating). The operations for fitting manhole sewer are in order: digging (excavation or manual) of a pit at the rate specified in the project, leveling its bottom, filled with a layer of gravel and sand compacting the layer, the introduction of PVC pipes, descent manhole pit, putting positions and achieve couplings PVC pipes, reinforcing piece extending home, staging upper adjustable fixing manhole cover (the roadway or carriageable), filling in layers with sand gap between home and shore land compacting successive layers of sand. If the connection is made to the water area is needed household consumption metering via a water meter (version constructive screen wet or dry screen). Home for water meter is made of polyethylene, is insulated with mineral wool (which protects against frost of the whole), shows increased mechanical strength (is provided with ribs to strengthen). Cover is made of polyethylene equipping home and in the body of the insulating material is injected polyurethane insulation which increases the ability of the cover. This home is equipped with taps on the ball (sphere) for quick handling and a perfect seal. It is recommended installation of a Y filter impurities before the meter to protect it from rust or suspensions in water. Elements Plants: distributor of brass, head electromechanical flow meter, control valve, three-way valve, bypass distributors, ball valves crossing, Socket screw mixer, thermostatic valve, circulation pump, safety thermostat manual reset to stop the pump, valve discharge, thermometer, automatic air vent, servometru with microswitch, air vent, seal holender, balancing valve, fitting eccentric box to distributors by flush galvanized steel, connection nickel-plated brass, screw nut, plastic box carrier plate adjustable casing length, fitting brass compression fitting as Brass tee compression equal or unequal, elbow, connecting flange connecting tube Fire protection, arc bending multilayer pipe, calibrated tibur , Cutters pipes rotated or guillotine, connection coupling, nipple Nickel threaded elbow, tee reduced sockets for passage hidden conduits, canal floor wooden press connections, press electric battery or current clamp tube, pliers for the press, insulating and accessories for heating and cooling floor, concrete slabs, perimeter hoardings, screed, metallic mesh, synthetic fiber, clearing expansion, foil vapor, clamps fixed tubes, plastics insulating panel Insulating, sustained net, adhesive additive cement barrier steam for radiant systems, transparent adhesive strip, stretching device adhesive tape, supports spacers, clips grip, tap law regulating nickel corner valve radiator valves Heating and return , seal valve, made of brass, nickel and chromium, warhead Teflon seal Oring valve, thermally, head electro taps, thermostatic probe immersion, strip, bend with adapter brass air vent, radiator, nipple reduced automatic valve, plug with O-ring seal valve, manual valve, heaters, cast iron, steel and aluminum, nipple connection, nipple equally threaded sleeve brass, elbow chrome tees, connecting cross ring Reduction brass set extension , connecting electrically connecting pipes threaded rod threaded sliding connection Contact tanks, connecting port hose, flange connection, Mating payment and neck, asbestos, klingherit march, bolts, anchors, connecting bypass ring elastic washer brass connection with tightening, double connection junction chimney draft regulator, the track clean, flexible connection curve 45 and 90 degrees for welding, fitting bypass Reduction concentric and eccentric elbow bronze threaded holender, Netherlands, cotholender alloy welding, welding wire, deoxidiser, pressure ring, backnuts, tap crossing sphere with lever handle or butterfly valve, lever or butterfly, extension rod for the valve thermometer and pressure gauge kit, a manometer, and flanged ball valves, gate valve steel and cast iron, chrome-plated ball valve for cooling valve and regulator connection portfurtun jet, gas ball valve, gas cup, thermal safety device. Cables for fixed electrical installations. Pipelines Al with PVC insulation for electrical wiring fixed: AFY, AFYI conductor with PVC insulation for electrical wiring fixed: FY FY-F H05V-U, H07V-U, H07V-R pipe bridge with PVC insulation for electrical wiring fixed : 2x2.5 FPYY coaxial cable for connections: CCBYY copper power cables with insulation and PVC jacket: CYY, CYY-F - Cable with fire retardant, NYY, CYKY, CYABY - reinforced with steel strip, CYABY- F Conductor stranded copper with PVC insulation, high temperature resistant: H05V2-K, H07V2-K Conductor solid copper insulated without release of halogen H05Z-U, H07Z-U Conductor stranded copper insulation without clearance halogen: H05Z-K, H07Z-K multiple conductors insulated copper pairs with PVC jacket: NYFAZ, H03VH-H copper cable with PVC insulation: NYM copper cable without release of halogen NHXMH power cables aluminum PVC insulated and sheathed 0.6 / 1kV: ACYY, NAYY, ACYAbY - reinforcing steel strips power cables AL PVC insulated and sheathed with flames delay increased to 0.6 / 1kV: ACYY-F, ACYABY- F power cables AL with insulation and PVC jacket, shielded with aluminum wire: ACYEALAbY, ACYEALABY-F power cables AL insulated XLPE and PVC sheath: AC2XY power cables AL with insulation and PVC jacket, Shielded belt CU, 3.6 / 6 KV: ACYEY, ACYEABY, ACYEY-F, ACYEABY-F power cables from Al insulated and sheathed PVC shielded belt CU-reinforced tape galvanized or cable fire: ACYEABzY, ACYEABzY -F power cables with insulation and PVC jacket, reinforced with galvanized strip: CYABzY, CYABzY-F power cables with flair. and PVC sheath copper screen partitions AL: CYEALAbY, CYEALAbY-F power cables with insulation and PVC sheath, shielded belt CU and reinforced 3.6 / 6 KV: CYEY-F, CYEABY-F power cables copper insulation XLPE and PVC sheath symbol: C2XY, C2XCY, C2XEY copper cable insulated cross-linked polyethylene and PVC sheath: N2XY, C2XY copper cable with PVC insulation sheathed linked polyethylene: E-XY2Y copper cable with PVC insulation and screen of copper NYCY, NYCWY aluminum cable with PVC sleeve and screen of copper NAYCWY copper cable sheathed fire resistance and without release of halogen (power cables and control with insulation XLPE halogen-free, late increased to flame retardant and fire resistant): N2XH Cable copper functionality in Flame and without release of halogen (cable copper wire solid sheathing and insulation that keeps the flame electrical functions for 30 or 90 minutes and physical integrity 180 min): NHXH E30 / FE180, NHXH E90 / FE180 Cond. Copper screen Copper and functionality in Flame: NHXCH E30 / FE180, NHXCH E90 / FE180 Energy wire. Isolated and insulated overhead conductors. Cords aluminum and aluminum alloy (AlMgSi) or galvanized steel: OL-AL Cond. twisted aluminum with PVC insulation: TYIF conductors Al and Al Ol-PVC insulated twisted beam: TYIR Power cable. Cables isolation. crosslinked polyethylene ptr. 12/20 KV overhead lines: CAOL2X 6-35 kV medium voltage cables. Power cable pole and copper screen of copper N2XSY, 2XSY power cable pole aluminum and screen of copper NA2XSY, A2XSY power cable copper sheath polyethylene screen of copper N2XS2Y, 2XS2Y power cable aluminum sheath polyethylene screen of copper NA2XS2Y, A2XS2Y power cable copper protection to water penetration: N2XS (F) 2Y, 2XS (F) 2Y power cable copper double protection to water penetration: N2XS ( FL) 2Y, 2XS (FL) 2Y power cable with aluminum protection from water penetration: NA2XS (F) 2Y, A2XS (F) 2Y power cable with aluminum double protection to water penetration: NA2XS (FL) 2Y, A2XS (FL) 2Y pole copper power cable with PVC sheath and copper screen: NYSEY, N2XSEY power cable and copper pole reinforcement steel band: NA2XBY electrical cables with concentric phase of AL .bransamente: ACBYCY Cables Signalling with insulation and PVC sheath 0.25 / 0.5 kV, 0.6 / 1KV: CSYY, CSYEY, CSYAbY, CSYEAbY signaling cables with PVC insulation and jacket with increased fire propagation delay. CSYY-F, CSYEY-F, CSYAbY-F, F-CSYEAbY signaling cables with PVC insulation and jacket with multiple conductors simbol.CSYAbY-rm, CSYEY-rm, CSYY-RM, RM-CSYEABY pt.semnalizare and automation cables Railway screen of the symbol: CSYEALAbY, CSYEALAbY-F signal cables with insulation and PVC jacket shielded belt CU with delays increased to flames: CSYEcAbzY-F signal cables with insulation and PVC sheath, screened Belt zn symbol: CSYEAbZY, CSYEABzY-F single or pair signaling cables with isolation. shielded PVC jacket and belt Cu cond. simb.CSYEcY flexible rm, CSYEcY-F, F-CSYEcAbY Signal cables flexible insulation and PVC jacket with numbered conductors designation: rm CSYnY flexible cables for connection to the network electrical appliances mobile flexible cables execution easier: MYUp, MYYUP, MYYU, H03VV-F, H03VVH2-F Flexible cables execution middle: MYYM, H05VV-F, A05VV-F flexible cable control shielded insulation and PVC jacket: MYEYM Cords with insulation and PVC jacket middle execution 300/500 V H05VV-F Flexible cable shielded with PVC insulation and jacket: YSLYCY-JZ, JZ YSLY-flexible unshielded cable with PVC insulation and jacket: YSLY-OZ flexible cables with insulation and PVC jacket Oil-resistant: CFYOLY cables and wires for the automotive, marine and railway Flexible PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to 450V: MYF, H05V-K, H07V-K low voltage conductor with PVC insulation for interior installations and vehicles (auto transporters): VLPY, FLY, FLRY Pipes Ignition vehicle: VAY Conductors highly flexible PVC insulated resistant to oil and fuel for locomotives and other vehicles: CffY-picked, CffY-CULD cable very flexible insulation and PVC jacket: CFFYY-V Control cable shielded with insulation and PVC jacket: MYEYM, MYEYM-F control cables shielded insulation and PVC sheath and jacket filling: MYYMEY flexible cables with PVC insulation and textile braiding industrial: MYI Flexible control cables with insulation and PVC jacket for machine tools: CCFYYMU control cables screened and unscreened with insulation and PVC jacket, oil resistant: CCFYY flexible cable insulation and PVC jacket shielded and unshielded: YSLY-JB, JZ YSLY-jacketed wires and cables resistant rubber in special conditions. Rubber sheathed conductors for low mechanical stress: MCCM; H05RR-F rubber-sheathed conductor with average mechanical pt.solicitari: MCCGI, H07RN-F, A07RN-F rubber-sheathed cable high mechanical ptr.solicitari: NSSHöu rubber sheathed cable, autopurtat to average mechanical stress: FLGöu Cable mackintosh used in welding: H01N2-D H01N2-E, signaling MSudC-current cables: Shielded signaling cable YSLY: YSLCY cable braid reinforced steel signaling: signaling cable jacket oil resistance: YSLQYH05VV5- F oil resistant signal cable with copper screen: H05VVC4V5-F rubber insulated high temperature resistant silicone. Copper conductor rubber insulated silicone Sid, SIF, FG4 / 2 UG4 / 2 copper conductor insulated silicone rubber and braid of fiberglass: SIF / GL, SiHF / GL, FG4G4T2 / 2 Conductor copper silicone rubber sheath: SiHF, FG4G4 / 2 copper conductor with silicone rubber jacket and braided steel: SiHFP Cond. copper-sheathed copper silicone rubber and screen: SiFCuSi concentric or twisted copper conductor insulation Teflon PTFE Cond. Copper silver, nickel and pure nickel: FEP, MFA, PFA cables for telecommunications wire connection for telecommunications: TCY, TCYr, TCYEY, TCLIY Cable band shell transparent: TCLIYP cords wires Leone Telecommunications: TLAYY pipes and cords for telecommunications : TLTY, TLTYYA Flat cable for telecommunications: TLIAYYP, TLiAPPYp pair cable for telecommunications: TU2YY, TU2YY + OL Electrical cables. Cable for interior installations in telecommunications: Telecomp Brida interior with copper conductors used in telecommunications facilities: TICU2YY cables for low frequency insulation and PVC jacket in pairs: TCYY Cords Flexible Telecommunications: TLIAYY, TLIAYEY pipes bracket autopurtate: TBLA galvanized steel pipes with PVC insulation: TBUOY telephone cables and wires. Cond. Interior used in telephony: TKSY cable telephony screen of aluminum foil: JY (St) Y cable telephony sheath PE Screen Aluminium and protection from water penetration: F-2YJA2Y, A-2YF (L) 2Y Cable telephony fire resistant and halogen free recess with aluminum JH (St) H Bd radio cables, electronics and computers Cable with insulation and PVC jacket with several pairs: CFFYY, CFFYYE Cable for registration, to Playback: CFF2YEYP cables for electronics: CCYEY, CLCYEY cables Sphygmomanometers: CSTYEY Shielded cables for microphones: M2YF Very flexible cables with insulation and PVC sheath, screened and unscreened control and signaling: LiYY - no screen, LIYCY, JE-LiYCYBd - screen of copper cable copper screen in aluminum foil and polyester spiral: AF copper wire screen of aluminum foil: JE-Y (St) Y Bd copper wire with aluminum fire resistant and without clearance halogen: JE-H (St) H BdE30 resistant cables temperature variations: high temperature. Cables for different applications winding wires insulated polyethylene for electric submersible: B2Y Cable double shielded flowmeters: C2YYEYEY electric cable signal: CAYEY conductor braided copper Cond Tresa With coaxial cables insulated polyethylene: TCC2YY-I coaxial autopurtate of Bus: TCC2YY-I + OL coaxial cable with polyethylene foam insulation: RG6 / U 75 ohm coaxial cable 1x1,02 insulated Cordel and two screens 93Ohm RG 62A / U, 71B / U coaxial .Cablu 50, 75Ohm: RG58C / U 213 / U, 11A / U, 59B / U cable very flexible insulation and PVC jacket: CFFYY-V Pipeline naval copper with PVC insulation up to 1000V very flexible: MYFFN Cables naval shielded polyethylene insulation: CN2YEY, CN2YEYEY flexible and highly flexible cable with PVC insulated ships: CNYYF, cable CNYYEYF given structure. Cables for data transmission. Structured for data cable with aluminum FTP Category 5, 6, 7 structured data transmission cable with aluminum and copper fabric: S / FTP cat. 5, 6, 7 structured for data cable UTP cat. 5, 6, 7 shielded cable for data transmission in pairs, foil and fabric copper common: Optical fiber RS-2YCY PIMF. Optical cables (fiber optic). Optical cable flame retardant without release of halogen: I-VH, IV (ZN) Optical cable construction and tubular sheath PE: AD (ZN) 2Y, A-DQ (ZN) 2Y Optical Cable tubular construction without release of halogen: AD (ZN) H, A-DQ (ZN) H Optical Cable autopurtat: S-XOTKts, S-XOTKtsd, S-XzOTKtsD, ADSS-XXOTKtsdD, ADSS-XXOTKtcds ADL Optical Cable Sewer Z-XOTKtsd Z-XOTKtd, XzOTKts Z-optic cable reinforced with aramid threads, sewer or suspended: Z-XOTKtsdD, Z-XOTKtD, Z-optic cable XXzOTKts retardant W-NOTKtsd, W-YnOTKtsd, W- YOTKtsD simplex or duplex Optic Cable W-NOTKtSd, W-YnOTKSd, W-YOTKSd special signaling cables. Signal cables fire. Cable fire detection screen of aluminum foil: FFC cable fire detection with and without shielding: JB-YY, JB-Y (St) Y cable fire detection with high resistance to fire and without release of halogen: JB-H (St) H Bd cable fire detection sheathed fire resistance and without release of halogen: JB-H (St) H BdE30 Cable Fire Cable Alarms: cable cord in pairs for signaling fires JB-Y (ST) Y High frequency cables. Cable high voltage and high frequency television connections: TL2Y, TL2YF Screened and jacketed with PVC insulation Polyethylene: TCC2YEY, TCC2YEYEY

 

 

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Korea, North Korea, South Korea Kuwait kyrgyzstan l laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg m macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro morocco Mozambique Myanmar n Namibia Nauru Nepal the Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua niger Nigeria Norway Northern Ireland a Oman p Pakistan Palau Palestinian member * Panama Papua New Guinea-Bissau , has decided as was provided by and verified at the Paraguay Peru poland Portugal q Qatar r Romania Russia Rwanda s St. Kitts & Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent & The the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tomé & Príncipe Saudi Arabia Scotland Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden managed Syria t Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand togo Tonga Trinidad & Tobago Tunisia turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu, Vanuatu u Uganda ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan v Vanuatu Vatican city Venezuela Vietnam w western Sahara * wales y Yemen z Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe Aachen Aalborg aba Abadan Abaetetuba Abakan Abbotabad Abbotsford Abeokuta Aberdeen Abidjan Abiko Abilene Abohar Abu Dhabi Abuja Acapulco Acarigua visited Accra Acheng Achinsk Adana Adapazarı Ababa Addis Ababa may Adelaide Aden Adhamiyah Ado-Ekiti Adoni Adıyaman Afyon Agadir Ageo Agartala Agra Ahmedabad Ahmednagar Aguascalientes Ahome Ahuachapán Ahvaz Ain Beida Aix-en-Provence Aizawl Aizuwakamatsu Akashi Ajmer Akola Akesu Akishima Akita Akron Aksaray Aktau Aktobe of 'Ain Arish of esAl Minya of Al-Hasakah Qadarif Al-Fashir Al-Ubayyid Alagoinhas Alajuela Alanya Albacete Albuquerque The Albury-Wodonga Alcalá some wounded people Alchevsk Alcorcón Alexandra Aletay Aleppo Alexandria Alexandria Algiers Algeciras Alicante Aligarh Allahabad Alipurduar Allappuzha Allentown Almada Almaty Almere Almería Almetyevsk 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me Avellaneda Ayacucho Aydın Asgabat Århus BAB Ezzouar Babol Babruysk Bacau Bacolod Bacoor Badajoz Badalona Bafoussam Bagé Baghdad Bago Bago City Baguio Baharampur Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Bahía Blanca Bahir but Bahraich Baia Mare Baidoa Baicheng Baise Baishan Baiyin soa Bakersfield two fines Balakovo Balashikha Baleshwar Balıkesir Balikpapan Baliuag Bally puddles Baltimore Balurghat tape at Bamako Bamenda Aceh Bandar Abbas Bandırma Bandung Bangalore Bangkok Bangui Banha money Suwayf Banja Luka Banjarmasin Banjul Bankura Baoding Baoji Baoshan Baotou Barakaldo Baraki Baranagar Baranovichi Barbacena Barcelona Barcelona Bardhaman Bareilly bar Barika Barinas Barisal Barnaul Barquisimeto joystick Barra Barrackpur Barrancabermeja Barranquilla Barreiras Barretos Barrie Barueri Baruta Barysaw Basel Basirhat Basra Bat yam Batala Batam Batangas City Bataysk Bath Bathinda Batman Batna slab Rouge Battambang Batumi Bauru Bayambang Bayamo Bayamón Puerto Rico Bayannur Bayawan Baybay Bazhou Beau-Bassin Beaumont Beauvais Beawar Béchar Beed Beersheba EIB'year Beihai Beijing Beipiao Beirut Béjaïa Belém Belfast Belford Roxo Belgaum Bellary Belgorod Belgrade (also Bellevue Bello Belo Horizonte Bengbu Benghazi Benguela My priest Mellal Benito Juárez Benoni Benxi Beppu pawn Berbera Berdyansk Berezniki Bergamo Bergen Bergisch Gladbach Berhampur Berkeley Berlin Bern Besançon Betim Bettiah Bhadravati Bhagalpur Bhalwal Bharatpur Bharatpur Bhatpara Bharuch Bhavnagar Bhilai Bhilwara Bhimavaram Bhind Bhiwandi Bhiwani Bhopal Bhubaneswar Bhuj Bhusawal Białystok Bidar Bielefeld Bielsko-Bia ła Bihar Sharif Bijapur Bikaner ball Tserkva Bilaspur Bilbao billings Biñan Binangonan Binzhou Biratnagar Birjand Birmingham Birmingham Bishkek Bislig English Federation Biskra Biysk Bizerte Blackpool Blagoveshchensk Blantyre Blida Bloemfontein Blumenau Bnei Brak black feather boa was remonstrating loudly Vista Faso Bobo-Dioulasso Bocaue Bochum Bogor Bogra Boise Bojnord Bokaro Steel City Boksburg Bole Bologna 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Calama Calamba City Calapan City Calbayog Calgary caramelize Caloocan Camaçari Camagüey Camaragibe Cambridge Cambridge Cambridge Campeche Cẩm Phả Campina Grande Campinas Campo Grande Campos dos Goytacazes Canberra Candelaria Cangzhou Canoas plant Cần Thơ Cape a fringe Cape Coral Cape Town Cap-Haïtien - Caracas Carapicuíba Cariacica flush calc particles easily away Cardiff Carolina Puerto Rico Carlisle Carrefour Carrollton Cartagena Cartagena s Cartago Cartago Caruaru Carúpano Casablanca Cascavel Castanhal Castellón from Catanduva flat Catania Catia to mar Cauayan City Caucaia Cavite City Caxias do Sul Caxias Cayenne French Guiana Cebu City CHEDDAR rapids Celaya Chandannagar Chandigarh chandler Chandrapur Changchun Changji Changde Changsha Changzhou Changshi Changwon Changzhi Chaohu Chaozhou Chaoyang Chapecó Chhapra Charikar Charleroi Charlotte Chatham-Kent Chattanooga Choo-Choo Cheboksary Chelyabinsk Chemnitz Chengde Chengdu Chengzhou Chennai Cheonan Cheongju Cherepovets Cherkessk Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Cherthala Chía Chiang may Chiayi Chiba Chibi City Chicago Chiclayo Chifeng Chigasaki Chikmagalur Chillán Chihuahua Chilpancingo Chimalhuacán Chimbote ndega Chincha other Chingola Chiniot Chirala Chirchiq Chishtian Chisinau Chita Chitradurga Chittagong Chittoor Chitungwiza Chizhou Chlef Chōfu Choloma Choluteca Chonburi Chongjin Chongqing Chorzów Christchurch Chula Vista Chuncheon Chungju Chuxiong City Chuzhou Cienfuegos Cincinnati Cirebon Apodaca evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates Bolívar Acuña evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates del is evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates Delgado Guayana Juárez evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates López Mateos Losada Madero evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates evidence demonstrates Nezahualcóyotl Evidence demonstrates Obregón Victoria Clarksville Cixi Creedence Clearwater Revival band came out Clermont-Ferrand Cleveland Cluj Napoca Coacalco Coatzacoalcos Cochabamba Codó Coimbatore Coimbra Colatina Colchester collimate Cologne Colombo Colombo Colón Colorado Springs Columbia Columbus Columbus Ohio Comilla Comodoro Rivadavia Conakry Concepción concord Concordia Constantine constant Contagem Copenhagen Copiapó Coquimbo Coral Springs Coquitlam Corby Córdoba Córdoba Córdoba Cork Harbor Çorlu Coro intercity train Corona Christi Corrientes Çorum cost Mesa Cotabato City Cotia Cotonou Cottbus Coventry Crawley Craiova RiaCrato Criciúma Cuautitlán Cuautla tão Cúcuta Cuddalore Cuenca Cuernavaca Cuiabá Culiacán Cumaná Curicó Curitiba Cuttack share Częstochowa Yes Nang Dabgram Dąbrowa Górnicza shook his Daegu Daejeon Dagupan Daitō left for Dakar where he will chair Yes Lat Dali Dalian Wanda Dallas Daloa Daly City Damanhur Damascus Dammam Damoh Danao City Dandong Dangyang Danjiangkou Danyang Daqing Es Salaam with concentrating Darlington Daraga Darbhanga Darwin Daska Dasmariñas Dasoguz Datong Daugavpils Davangere Davao City Dayton Dazhou Debrecen camp Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia Dehradun Deir EZ rangers Delhi Delmas Dengzhou Denizli Denpasar Denver Dera Ghazi Khan Derbent Derby Derince Des Moines Dessie Detroit Dewas Deyang Dezful Dezhou Dhaka Dhanbad Dhule Diadema Diaobingshan Dibrugarh Digos City Dijon Dili Timor-Leste Dimitrovgrad Dinajpur Dindigul Dingzhou Dipolog City building Dawa Divinópolis Diwaniyah Diyarbakır Djelfa Dniprodzerzhinsk Dnipropetrovsk Doboj and Dobrich Dodoma Doha Donetsk Dongchuan Dongguan Dongying Dongtai Dongyang Dordrecht Dortmund Dos Quebradas Douala Dourados Dresden co-starring Robert Downey Drobeta Turnu Severin Dubai es Dublin Dudley Duisburg Duitama Dujiangyan Dumaguete City Dundee Dunedin Dunhua Dunhuang Dunkerque Duque of Caxias Durango venues in Durban Durg Durgapur Durham tube Durrës Dushanbe Duyun Düsseldorf so near it as Eastbourne Ebetsu Dzerzhinsk Ebina Ecatepec Ede Ede iaEdéa Edinburgh Edirne Edmonton Eilat Eindhoven Ekibastuz he Aaiún he Alto El Eulma El Jadida El Khroub El Monte El Oued El Paso El Progreso Elazığ Elbląg Elche Eldoret Elektrostal Elista Elizabeth elk Ivor Grove El-Mahalla El-Kubra Eluru Emeishan Emmen Engels English bazaar Enschede Ensenada Enshi Enugu iaEnvigado Erbil Erfurt Erlangen eries Erode Erzincan Erzurum Eskisehir Escondido Esenler Esfahan Esmeraldas Espoo Essen Etawah Eugene Eujeongbu Evansville Exeter Ezhou in Punjab Faizabad Faridabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Fayetteville Fayyum Feira of Santana Fengcheng Fenghua Fergana Ferrara Ferraz de Vasconcelos is ESF Firozabad were allegedly Plata Florencia Florianópolis Floridablanca Focsani Foggia Forlì formosa 35 percent each Redoubt Collins "Fort Lauderdale Redoubt Wayne Fort Worth Fortaleza Redoubt-of-Martinique Foshan Foz do Iguaçu franca Francisco Morato Francistown ex-da Rocha pears Frankfurt am Main Freetown at Freiburg im Breisgau Fremont Fresno was'year Fuchu Fuenlabrada Fuji Fujieda Fujimi Fujin City Fujinomiya Fujisawa Fukuya champion Diana Mocanu won Fukui Fukushima Fukuyama Fuling Fullerton Funabashi Funchal Fushun Fuxin Fuyang Fuzhou, Fujian Fuzhou,'s Fürth Gabès Gaborone Gadag-Betgeri Galati Gandhidham Gandhinagar Ganganagar Gangneung Gəncə Ganzhou Gaocheng Garanhuns Garden Ivor Grove garland Garoua Gary at Gateshead's Gatineau Gaya Palestine Gaza city Gaziantep Gdańsk Gdynia from Gebze Geelong Gejiu Geleen-Sittard Gelsenkirchen General SANTOS City Geneva Genoa George Town Georgetown what if Leto's hurt Germiston Getafe Ghardaïa Ghazni Ghaziabad Ghent Circular Canal Gifu Gijón Gilbert Gingoog City Girardot Giresun The trick worked. Glasgow Glazov Glendale, Arizona Glendale, Calif. , Gliwice Gloucester Godhra Godoy Cruz Goiania Gojra Gold Coast Goma Re oh the Gómez de Gonbad-e Qabus Gondar Gondiya Gongzhuling Gorakhpur rock shrine here this day Gorzów Wielkopolski Gothenburg Governador Valadares Göttingen Grenada Grenada Grand prairie Grand rapids Gravataí Graz Green Bay Greensboro Grenoble Groningen Grozny Grudziądz Guadalajara Guadeloupe Guanare Guanghan Guangshui Guangyuan Guangzhou Guantánamo Guarapuava Guaratinguetá Guarenas Guarujá Guarulhos City Guayaquil Guaymas Guaynabo Puerto Rico Gudivada Guédiawaye Guelma Guelph Guigang Guilin Guiyang Gujiao City Gujranwala Gujrat Gumi Guna Guntakul Gulbarga Guntur Gunsan Gurgaon Guwahati Gwalior mouths Guruvayur Gwangju Gweru Gyeongju Győr Gyumri Ha Long Haarlem Habikino Habra Hachinohe Hachiōji Hadano Haeju Hafizabad Hagen Haicheng Haifa Haikou Hailun Haining City Haiphong Hakodate Haldia Haldwani-as-Christ" Kathgodam Halifax Halle Hamadan Hamamatsu Hamburg Hamhung Hami City Hamilton Hamilton Hamm Hanam Hancheng Handa Hangzhou Handan Hanoi Hanover Hanzhong Haora Hapur Harare Harbin Hargeisa Haridwar Hartford Hassan Hathras Havana Hebi Hayward Hebron Palestine Hechi Heerlen-Kerkrade Hefei Hegang 53.28Heihe Based in Heilbronn Helsingborg Helsinki Henderson Hengshui Hengyang Heraklion concerning their Herat Hermosillo Herne Heshan Hetian Heyuan Heze Hialeah Higashihiroshima Higashikurume Higashimurayama Higashiosaka Hikone Hildesheim Hilla town Himamaylan City Himeji Hindupur Hino Hirataka Hiratsuka Hirosaki Hiroshima Hisar Hitachi Hitaka Ho Chi Minh City be established at Hobart Hofu Holguín Homs come upon Homyel Hong Kong Hong Kong Honghu Honolulu Horlivka Hortolandia Hoshiarpur Hospet Hospitalet Llobregat the Houghly-Chinsura Houma Houston Hoya Hrodna Hsinchu Huadian Huaian Huaibei Huaihua Huainan Huaiyin Huambo Huancayo Huanghua Huangshan Huangshi Huangyan Huánuco Huaraz Huaying Hubli-Dharwad Hudaida Huddersfield Huế Huelva Huhehaote Huixian Huizhou Huludao Hulunbuir Hunchung Huntington Beach Huntsville Huozhou Huzhou Hyderabadi Hyderabadi Hyesan Iasi RiaIbadan iaIbagué Ibaraki Ibarra Ibirité Ica Ichalakaranji Ichihara Ichikawa Ichinomiya Ife iaIida Ikeda Ikere-Ekiti iaIkoma Iksan iaIlagan made up exclusively by Ilam Ilesa iaIlhéus Iligan Iloilo City Ilopango Ilorin iaImabari Imbaba Imperatriz Imphal Inazawa Inchon Indaiatuba Independence napolis Indore Inegöl Inglewood Ingolstadt Innsbruck Ipatinga Ipoh Ipswich Iquique Iquitos Irapuato Irbid Iriga Irkutsk Iruma Irvine Irving ibed Isesaki Ishinomaki bonanza wondering excitedly Shahr Islamabad Ismaïlia Isparta Istanbul Itaboraí Itabuna Itagüí Itaituba Itajaí Itami Itapecerica da Serra Itapetininga Itapevi Itaquaquecetuba Itu Ivano-Frankivsk Ivanovo Iwaki, Fukushima Iwakuni Iwatsuki Iwo iaIxtapaluca Izhevsk Izmir İzmit Izumi Jabalpur Jaboatao dos Guarapes Jacareí Jackson Jacksonville Jacobabad Jaén Jaffna Jaipur Jalandhar Jakarta Jalalabad Jalpaiguri Jalgaon Jalna Jamalpur Jambi Jamnagar Jamshedpur Jaraguá do Sul Jaranwala Jastrzębie Zdrój Jaú Jaunpur Jayapura Jeddah Jena Jeongju Jeonju Jequié Palomino de Jerez from colonel admitted Jersey City Jerusalem Jessore Jhang Jhansi Jhelum Jiagedaqi Jiamusi Ji'year Ji'year Jiangmen Jiangshan Jiangyin Jiangyou Jiaohe Jiaojiang Jiaozhou City Jiaozuo Jiaxing Jiayuguan Jieshou Jijel Jimma Jimo Jinan Jinchang Jincheng Jingdezhen Jingmen Jingzhou Jining Jinhua Jinzhou Jinshi City Jinzhong Jishou Jiujiang Jiuquan Jiutai Jiutepec Jixi Jiyuan Jizzakh event last year's winner Rodrigo Pessoa Jodhpur the Joetsu Johannesburg Johor Bahru Joinville Joliet Jorhat Jönköping Down iaJuazeiro Juazeiro do Norte Juba Juiz of you can't drill Juliaca Junagadh Jundiaí Jyväskylä Kabankalan Kabul Kabwe Kadhimiya Kadoma Kaduna iaKaesong Kafr Dawar Kagoshima Kahramanmaras Kaifeng Kaili Kairouan Kaiserslautern Kaiyuan Kaiyuan Kakamigahara Kakinada Kakogawa Kaliningrad Kalisz Kallithea Kalyan Kaluga Kamensk-Uralsky Kamagaya Kamakura Kamarhati Kamianets-Podilskyi Kamoke Kampala Kampong cham Kamptee Kamyshin Kananga Re oh the Kanazawa Kanchipuram Kanchrapara Kandahar Kandy Kanggye Kanhangad Kannur Kano iaKanpur Kansas City of Karachi Kansk Kaohsiung Kaolack Karaganda Karaikkudi Karaj Karaman Karamay Karbala Karimnagar Kariya Karlsruhe Karnal Karur Kashan Kashgar Kashihara Kashiwa Kassala Kassel kasuga Kasugai Kasukabe Kasur debated Kathlehong Katihar Katowice Kaunas Kawagano Kawagoe Kawaguchi Kawanishi Kawasaki Kayseri Kecskemét Kazan Kemerovo is Jonas Kediri Keelung Kempton Park Kenitra Kerch Kerman Kermanshah Khabarovsk Khairpur Khammam Khandwa Khanewal Khanpur Kharagpur Kharkiv Khartoum Khartoum Khasavyurt Khayelitsha Khenchela Kherson Khmelnytskyi Khimki also Khatami's) Shahr Khon Kaen Khoramabad Khoramshahr Khouribga Khoy Khulna Kırıkkale Kızıltepe Kidapawan City Kiel Canal Kielce Kiev Kigali Kikwit Re oh the Kimberley Kimhae Kingston Kingston Kingston upon Hull Kinshasa Re oh the Kirkuk Kirovohrad Kiryu Kisangani Re oh the Kisarazu Kiselyovsk Kishiwada Kislovodsk Kismayo SoaKisumu Kitakyushu Kitami Kitchener Kitwe Klaipėda Klang Knoxville Koblenz Kobe Kochi Kōchi Kofu Kodaira Koganei Kokubunji Kohat Kokand Kokshetau Kolar Kolhapur Kolkata Kollam Colomna who suffered Kolwezi re Oh the Komaki Komatsu Komsomolsk-on-Amur Konya Korba Korhogo Koriyama Korla Korolyov Koronadal City Koshigaya Košice Kostanay Kosti Kostroma Koszalin Kota Bharu Kota Kinabalu Kota Kothagudem Kovrov Kottayam Kozhikode Kraków Kragujevac Kraljevo Kramatorsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Krasnyi Luch Krefeld Kremenchuk Krishnagar Kruševac Kryvyi RCH Its architecture Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur Kuantan Terengganu Kuching Kumagaya Kumamoto Kumasi Kumbakonam region Kunduz Kunming Kunshan Kuopio Kurashiki Kure Kurnool Kurgan Kursk Kurume Kusatsu Kushiro Kut Kutaisi City Kuwana Kütahya Kuytun Kwekwe Kyoto Kyzyl Kyzylorda at Ceiba La Coruña Las Palmas of Gran Canaria at Paz at Paz to pay La Rioja to Serena at the victory Lafayette Lages Laghouat Lagos iaLahore in Lahti in Laiwu Laiyang Laizhou Lalitpur Lakewood Lancaster Langfang Lansing Lanús Lanxi Lanzhou Laoag City Laohekou Lapu-Lapu City Laredo Larissa Larkana Larnaca Las Vegas Latin Latakia Latur Launceston Lauro de Freitas Lausanne LAVAL them there by hand Leeds Leganés Legazpi City Legnica LE Leiden mutation Leipzig Leiyang Leling Lengshuijiang Lengshuitan Leninsk-Kuznetsky Lens León León León Leshan Leskovac Leverkusen Lexington Lhasa Lianyuan Lianyungang Liaocheng Liaoyang Liaoyuan Libreville Lichuan trait Liège Ligao City Likasi Re oh the Liling into Lille Lilongwe Limassol Lima Limeira Limerick Limoges Lincoln Linhai Linfen Linhares Linköping Linqing Linxia Linyi Linz LIPA City Lipetsk Lisbon Lishui Little Rock Liupanshui Liuzhou Liverpool Livornia Livorno Ljubljana Lleida Lobito Box Logroño Lomas of Zamora Lomé London London Londrina Long Beach Longjing Longkou Longueuil Longxuyen Longyan Los Angeles Los Ángeles Los Mochis Los Teques Loudi Louisville Lowell lu'year 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Marília Maringá Mariupol Mariveles, Bataan Markham Marrakech Marseille Marvdasht Masan Masaya Maseru Mashhad Masjed Soleyman Matadi Matamoros Tamaulipas Matanzas Mataró Mathura Mati Davao Oriental Matsubara Matsudo Matsue Mitsuko Matsumoto Matsuyama Matsusaka Maturín Mauá Maunath Bhanjan Mawlamyaing (Moulmein) Mayagüez Maykop Mazari Sharif Mazatlán Mazyr Mbabane Mbeya Mbour Mbandaka Mbuji-Mayi McAllen Texas Mecca Medan Medea Medellín Medina Medinipur Meerut Meihekou Meizhou Mejicanos Mekele Meknes Melbourne Melitopol assassinated in Memphis Tennessee Mendoza Merca Mérida Mérida Mersin Mesa Arizona mesquite Texas Messad Messina Metepec Metz Mexicali City Pampanga Meycauayan City Mezhdurechensk Miami Florida Miami Gardens Florida Mianyang Miass Michurinsk Middlesbrough Midsayap Cotabato Milagro Milan Milton Keynes Miluo Milwaukee Wisconsin Minatitlán Minglanilla Cebu Minneapolis gift Minoh Minsk Mirpur Khas Mirzapur-as-Vindhyachal Misato Mishan Mishima Miskolc Mississauga Misrata Mitaka Mito Miyazaki Miyakonojo Mobile Alabama Modena Modesto California Modinagar Moers Mogadishu ambassador attributions and carries out task Mogilev (Mahilyow) Mogpo Mogi Mogi das Cruzes Guaçu Mombasa Monclova Moncton Monrovia Montería of Monterrey Monte Carlo Montes Claros Montevideo Montgomery Alabama Montpellier Montreal Montreuil Monywa Monza Moradabad Moratuwa Morelia Morena Moreno Valley California Moriguchi Morioka Morogoro we made Morvi Mossoró Mostaganem Mostar Móstoles Mosul Mönchengladbach M'disgust Mudanjiang Mufulira Mulhouse Multan Mumbai 2450/98 Munger Munich Muntinlupa City Murcia Murfreesboro Tennessee Muridke Murmansk Murom Muroran Murwara Musashino Bitten Mushin Move Muzaffargharh Muzaffarnagar Muzaffarpur Mülheim der Ruhr "Mwanza Mykolaiv Mymensingh Mysore Mytho Mytishchi Nabadwip Naberezhnye Chelny Nadiad Naga City Nagano Nagaoka Nagareyama Nagercoil at Nagasaki Nagoya Naha Nagpur Naihati Nairobi Najaf Najafabad Nakhodka Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon and Thammarat Nakuru Nalchik Namangan Namdinh Nampho Nampula Namur Nanchong Nanchang Nancy Nanded Nangong Nandyal MET previously awarded Nanning Nanping Nantes Nantong Nanyang Naperville Illinois Napier-Hastings Naples nostril Narashino Narayanganj Nasariya Nashik Nashville-Davidson Tennessee Nassau Nasugbu, Batangas Natali Naucalpan Navapolatsk Navoi Navotas City Navsari Nawabganj Nawabshah Nazareth Nazilli Nazran N'Djamena Ndola Neftekamsk Nefteyugansk Neijiang Neiva Nellore Netanya Neuquén Neuss Nevinnomyssk New 2450/98 New Delhi New Haven latest discoveries NOIDA New Orleans, Louisiana New York New York Newark New Jersey Newcastle Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle Newport Neyagawa Neyshabur Neyveli Nhatrang NIAMEY psionic Nicosia Niigata Niihama Niiza Nijmegen Nikopol Nilópolis Nimes Ningbo Ningde Niš Nishinomiya Nishio Niterói Nizamabad Nizhenvartovsk Nizhnekamsk Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Tagil Nobeoka Noda Nogales Noginsk Nonthaburi Norilsk Norman, Oklahoma Norrköping Las Vegas, Nevada ampton Norwalk, California Norwich Norzagaray, Bulacan Nossa senhora do Socorro Nottingham Nouakchott Nova Friburgo Nova Iguaçu Manche and Orne within Novi Sad Nôvo Hamburgo Novocheboksarsk Novokuybyshevsk Novocherkassk Novokuznetsk Novorossiysk Novomoskovsk Novoshakhtinsk Novosibirsk Novotroitsk Novy Urengoy Noyabrsk Nueva San Salvador Nuevo Laredo Nukuʻalofa Numazu Nukus runs eastwards from Nuremberg Nyala, Nyíregyháza at Oakland, Calif. , Oakville Oaxaca of Juárez Oberhausen Obihiro Obninsk Oceanside, Calif. , Odawara." Odense Odessa Odintsovo Offenbach am Main Ōgaki Ogbomosho Ōita Okara Okazaki Okayama Okinawa Summit Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Oktyabrsky Oldenburg Oldham Door mirror Olq Olomouc Olongapo City Olsztyn Omaha, Nebraska Omdurman Omsk Ōmuta Ondal Ongole Onitsha Ontario, California Opole but Yehuda Oradea Oral Oran Orange, California Ordos City Ordu Örebro Orekhovo-Zuyevo Orenburg Orizaba Orlando, Florida Orléans Ormoc City It's on Orsha Orsk Oryol Orumiyeh Oruro Osaka Osasco OSH Oshawa Oshogbo Dancu Oslo Osmaniye Osnabrück Osorno OTA Ostrava Otaru Otsu Ottawa Ouagadougou Ouargla Oujda Oulu Ourense overland Park, Kansas Oviedo Oxford Oxnard, Calif. , Oyama Oyo Ozamiz City Paarl Pabna Pachuca Padang Paderborn Padua Pagadian City Pago Pago Paita Pakalongan Pakan Baru Pakpattan Palakkad Palangkaraya Palembang Main Street Water Fountain Palermo Pall slap of Mallorca Palmas Palmdale, California Palmira Palu Pamplona Panabo City City Pančevo Panevėžys Panihati Panipat Panjin Panzhihua Papeete Paradise, Nevada Parakou Paramaribo Paraná Paranaguá Parang, Maguindanao Parbhani Pardubice Paris entire happening Pasadena rant of Minas Patna Patras Patratu Ferro-Ligas Pavlodar Pavlohrad Pécs Pelotas Pematang Siantar Pembroke Pines, Florida Penza Peoria, Arizona Peoria, Illinois Teresinka Peristeri Perm Perpignan; (Perth gia Pervouralsk Pescara Peshawar Petah Tikva Petaling Jaya Petare Peterborough Petrolina Petropavl Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Petrópolis Petrozavodsk Pforzheim Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were accomodated in bungalows right on Phnom Penh Phoenix, Arizona Phusro Phyongsong Piatra Neamt Pietermaritzburg Pikine Pilibhit Pinar del Río Pindamonhangaba Pingdingshan Pingdu Pingliang Pingxiang Pinhais Pinsk Piracicaba Piraeus PIR Mahal Pitesti Pittsburg, Pennsylvania Piura Plano, Texas President Płock Ploiesti Plovdiv Plymouth Plzeň Poços of Caldas Podgorica Podolsk Pohang Pointe-Noire Pollachi Polomolok, Cotabato Poltava Pomona, California Pondicherry Ponta Grossa pumice Pontianak Poole Popayán Porac, Pampanga Porbandar Port Elizabeth Port Harcourt Port Louis Port Moresby (POM Said Shehade Port Port port-have-Prince Portland, Oregon Porto Alegre Porto Novo Porto Velho Porto Portoviejo Portsmouth Posadas Potosí Potsdam on Pouso Alegre picture Costa Rica by Poznań as second unit director on Hidalgo with view Praia Praia Grande Prato of Presidente Prudente Preston Pretoria Prijedor Priština Probolinggo Proddatur Prokopyevsk Providence, Rhode Island by-, Utah Pucallpa Puebla again then the Zaragoza Pueblo, Colorado Puente Alto Puerto Cabello Puerto Montt Puerto Princesa City Puli Khumri puts Puno Punta arenas Punto Fijo Purnia pure Putian Puyang Pyatigorsk Pyongyang QA'em Shahr Qamishli Qarchak Qazvin Qianjiang Qidong Qingdao Qingtongxia Qingyang Qingyuan Qingzhou Qinhuangdao Qinyang Qinzhou Qiqihaer Qitaihe QOM Quanzhou Quebec City Queimados Querétaro Quetta Quevedo Quezon City Qufu Qui Nhon Quilmes Quilpué Quito Qujing Quzhou rebate Rach Gia Radom Rae Bareli Rahim Yar Khan Raichur Raiganj Raipur Rajkot Rajahmundry Rajapalaiyam Rajnandgaon Rajshahi Raleigh, Ramadi Ramagundam Carolina purposes of rooting different substrates can gan Ramnicu Valcea Rampur Ranaghat Rancagua Ranchi Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. , Rangpur Raniganj Rasht Ratlam Raurkela Ravenna Rawalpindi Rayong Reading for travel from Recife Recklinghausen Regensburg Reggio Calabria Queen Rehovot Reims Rennes Relizane Remscheid Reno, Nevada Renqiu Resende Resistencia Reutlingen Rewa Reykjavík Reynosa Ribeirão das Neves Ribeirão Pires Ribeirão Preto Richmond Hill Richmond Richmond, Virginia Riga Rijeka Rimini Rio branco Rio Claro Rio Cuarto Rio de Janeiro Rio Grande Rio Green Riobamba Rishon LeZion riverside, California Tora Riyadh Rizhao Rochester, gift Rochester, New York Rockford, Illinois Rodriguez (Montalban), Rizal Roma Rohtak Rondonópolis Rongcheng Roodepoort Rosario Rostock Rostov-on-Don Rotherham Rotterdam bridge in Rouen Rousse Roxas City Rubtsovsk relative Śląska Rudni Ruian Ruichang Russiefa Rustavi Ruzhou Ryazan Rybinsk Rybnik Rzeszów Saanich Saarbruecken Sabadell Sabára Sabzewar electrical contractor in Sacramento, California Sadiqabad SAFI saga Sagamihara Sagar Sagay City Saguenay Saharanpur Sahiwal Saida Saidpur Saint Petersburg Saint-Denis Saint-Étienne Saint John Saint Louis Saint-Paul Saitama Sakai, Osaka Sakata Sakura, Chiba Salamanca Salamanca Salavat Salé Salem, Oregon Salem Salihorsk Salerno Salinas, Calif. , Salt Lake City, Utah Bounce Saltillo El Salvador Salzburg Salzgitter Samara Samarinda Samarkand Sambalpur Sambhal Samsun San Antonio, Texas San not, California San Bernardo San Buenaventura, California San Carlos City, Negros Occidental San Carlos City, Pangasinan San San Cristóbal Cristóbal of Las Casas San Diego, California San Fernando City, the IROC San Fernando City, Pampanga San Fernando del Valle of Catamarca San Francisco, California San José San Jose City, Nueva Ecija San Jose del Monte City San Jose, California San Jose, Occidental Mindoro San Juan, San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juan City, Metro Manila San Lorenzo San Luis Potosí San Luis San Martin San Mateo, Rizal San Miguel San Miguel by Tucumán San Miguel, Bulacan San Miguelito San Nicolás San Nicolás of los Garzas San Pablo City San Pedro de Macoris awl San Pedro San Pedro, Laguna San Rafael San Salvador of Jujuy San Salvador San Sebastián Health'of Sanandaj Sancti Spíritus Sanda Sandakan Sangli Sanlıurfa Sanmenxia Sanming Santa Ana, California Santa Bárbara d'Oeste Santa Clara, Calif. , Santa Clara Santa Clarita, California Santa Coloma of Gramanet Santa Cruz from Sierra Santa Cruz said the Santa Cruz do Sul Santa Cruz, Laguna Santa Fe by Bogotá Santa Fe Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais Santa Maria, California Santa Maria, Bulacan Santa Marta Santa Rita Santa Rosa, California Santa Rosa City Santander Santarém, Santiago Santiago City Santiago Santiago de los Caballeros Santiago del Estero Santipur Santo Mr André Santo Domingo of los Colorados Santo Domingo Santo which enclosed Tom, Batangas SANTOS Sanya São Bernardo do Campo Sao Caetano do Sul São Carlos São Gonçalo São the São José the deserve the Ribamar São José do Rio Preto São José dos Campos São José dos Pinhais São José São Leopoldo São Luís São Paulo Sao Vicente Sapporo Sapucaia do Sul Saqez Saraburi Sarajevo Saransk Sarapul Saratov sar-e Pol Sargodha Jump Sariaya, Quezon Sariwon Sasebo Saskatoon Sassari Satna Satu Mare Savannah, Sayama Schwerin Scottsdale, Arizona Seam Reab Seattle Sabha Sekondi-Takoradi Seleyang Baru Semarang Semipalatinsk Sendai Seongnam Seoul Serampore Seremban Sergiyev Posad Serpukhov Serra Sertaozinho thirst Lagoas Setif lust for Sevastopol Severodvinsk Seversk Seville SFAX shah Shahe his Shahjahanpur Qods Shahrekord Shahrud Shakhty Shanghai Shangqiu Shangluo Shangrao Shangzhi Shantou Shanwei Shaoguan Shaowu Shaoxing Shaoyang Sharjah Shchyolkovo Sheberghan Pure Sheffield Sheikhu Sheopur Shenyang Sherbrooke homes around Shenzhen Shibin el Kom Shihezi Shihung Shijiazhuang Shikarpur Shillong Shimla Shimoga Shimizu Shymkent Shimonoseki Shinyanga Shiraz Shishi City Shishou Shivpuri Shiyan Shkodër Shizuishan Shizuoka in Shreveport, Louisiana Shuangcheng Shuangyashan Shubra of Shuozhou Khaymah Sialkote Šiauliai Sibiu Sibu fit-Bel-Abbès Siegen Sieverodonetsk Siirt Sikar Silang, Cavite Silay City Silchar Siliguri Simferopol joys Valley, California Sincelejo Sinuiji Sioux Falls, Dakota plane Siping Sirjan Sirsa Sitapur Sittwe Sivakasi Sivas Siverek Skikda Skopje Sliven Slough Sloviansk Słupsk Soacha Sobral Smederevo Smolensk Sochi Sofia Sogamoso Soka Solapur Soledad O Solihull Solikamsk Solingen Songkhla Songyuan Sonipat Sorocaba Sorsogon City Sosnowiec Souk Ahras Bend, na yourself yourself ampton end on Sea Soweto Soyapango Split Spokane, Washington Springfield, Illinois Springfield, Massachusetts Springfield, Missouri Springs Srinagar St Helens St Louis, Missouri St Paul, gift St Petersburg, Florida St. Catharines St. John's Stakhanov Stamford, latest discoveries Status Zagora Starsy Stavanger Oskol Stavropol Sterling Heights, Michigan Sterlitamak Stockholm Stockport Stockton, California at Stoke-on-Trent Strasbourg Stuttgart Subotica Suceava Sucre Suez Suhaj Suihua Suining suite Suizhou Sukabumi Sukkur Sulamaniya Sullana Sultanbeyli Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao Sumaré Sumgait Sumy Suncheon, Sunderland Sundsvall Sungai Petani Sunnyvale, California Sunshine Coast Suqian Surabaya Surakarta Thani contents contents Surgut Surigao City Surrey Sutton Coldfield Suzano Suva, Suwon, Puwan Suzhou, Anhui Suzhou, Jiangsu tells Swansea Swindon Sydney Syktyvkar Syracuse Syracuse, New York including Syzran Szeged Székesfehérvár Ta'if Tabaco City Taboão yes Serra Tabriz Tacheng Tachikawa Tacloban City Tacna Tacoma, Washington Taebaek Taganrog Taguig City Tagum City Taian City Taichung Tainan Taipei Taiping Taiyuan Taiz Taizhou, Jiangsu Taizhou, Zhejiang Tajimi Takamatsu Takaoka Takarazuka Takasaki Takatsuki Talara Talavera, Nueva Ecija Talca Talcahuano Talisay City, Cebu Tallahassee, Florida Tallinn Taloqan Tama tamale Tambov Tampa, Florida Tampere Tampico Tanauan City Tandil Tandoadam eft Tangier Tangail Tangshan Tanjung Pinang Tanta Tanza, Cavite Taonan Tarapoto Tapachula Granada Taraz Targu-Mures Tarija Tarlac City Tarnów Tarragona tarsus Tartu Tashkent Taubaté Taunggyi Tauranga Taytay, Rizal Tbilisi Tegucigalpa Tehran Tebessa Tegal Tehuacán Teixeira de Freitas Tekirdağ Tel Aviv Telford Tembisa Temirtau tempeh, Arizona Temuco Tenali Tengzhou Teófilo Otoni Tepic Teresina Teresópolis Termez Terni Ternopil Terrassa Tétouan Thai Nguyen Thalassery Thane Thanjavur The Hague Thessaloniki Thiès Thimphu Thiruvananthapuram Thousand Oaks, Calif. , Thrissur Thunder Bay Tianmen Tianjin Tianshui Tiaret Tieli Tieling Tijuana, ex-works Tilburg Timisoara Your Timon Tiruchchirappalli Tirunelveli Tirupati Tiruppur Tiruvannamalai Titagarh Tlalnepantla Tlalpan Tlaquepaque Tlaxcala Tlemoen Tobolsk Toda Tokat Tokorozawa Tokushima Tokuyama Tokyo Toledo City, Cebu Toledo, Ohio Toledo, Paraná Toluca Tomakomai Tolyatti Tomsk Tondabayashi Tongchuan Tonghua Tongi Tongjiang Tongliao Tongling Tongren Tonk Toowoomba Topeka, Kansas Toronto Torrance, California Torreón Toruń Tottori Touggourt Toulon Toulouse Tours Townsville Toyohashi Toyokawa Toyama Toyonaka Toyota Trabzon Trento Trieste for Tripoli, for Tripoli, Trondheim Trois-Rivières Trujillo TSU Tsuchiura Tsukuba Tsuruoka Tucson, Arizona Tuguegarao City Tula Tulsa, Oklahoma Tulua Tulufan Tumbes Tumen Tumkur Tunis Tunja Turgutlu Turhal Turin Turkmenabat Turku Turmero Tuticorin Tuxtla Gutiérrez Tver," insisted Tuzla Tychy in Tyumen was submitted by UBE Uberaba Uberlandia Ubon Ratchathani Udon Thani Udaipur Udupi Ujjain us their Ufa Uji Ujung Pandang Ukhta Ulaan Chab Ulaanbaatar Ulan-Ude Ulyanovsk Ulhasnagar Ulm Ulsan Umeå Umlazi Unnao Uppsala Urasoe Urawa Urayasu Urdaneta City Urgentch Uruapan Uruguaiana Usak Usolye-Sibirskoye Ussuriysk Ust-Ilimsk Ust-Kamenogorsk Utrecht Utsunomiya Uzhhorod Vadakara Vadodara Vaduz Valdivia Valencia City, Bukidnon Valencia Valencia, Valenciennes as well as Valera Valladolid Valle of Chalco Valledupar Vallejo, California Valparai Valparaíso Valsad Van Vanadzor Vancouver, Washington Vancouver Vantaa Varamin Varanasi Varginha Varna Varzea Grande Västerås Vaughan Velikiye Luki Veliky Novgorod Vellore Venice Veracruz Verona Vereeniging Viamão Vicente López, Buenos Aires Vicenza Las Tunas Victoria Vienna's Konzerthaus Vientiane Vigo Vijayawada Vila Nova de Gaia Vila Velha Nicolás Villa Romero Villahermosa Villavicencio Villeurbanne Afghanistan Viña del mar Vinh Vinnytsia Vsehir Visakhapatnam Vitebsk Vitória yes Conquista Vitória of Santo Antão Vitória Vitoria-Gasteiz Vizianagarm Vladikavkaz Vladimir Vladivostok Volgodonsk Volgograd Vologda road Volta Redonda Volzhsky Voronezh Votkinsk Vungtau Waco, Texas wad Madani Wadhwan Wafangdian Wah Cantonment Wakayama Wałbrzych Walsall Wanxian Warangal Wardha Warren, Michigan Warrington Warsaw Washington D.C. Waterbury, latest discoveries of Weifang Weihai Watford Weihui Weinan Wellington Wendeng Wenzhou West Bromwich West Covina, California West Valley City, Utah Westminster, Colorado Wichita Falls Kibbutz." Whitby Falls, Texas Wichita Falls Kibbutz.", Kansas Wiesbaden Willemstad Windhoek Winnipeg Windsor Winston-Salem , Winterthur Carolina Witten Włocławek Wollongong is currently operating unity banner Wonju Wonsan Wolverhampton Worcester, Massachusetts Wrocław Wu'year Wuhai Wuhan Wuhu Wulanhaote Wulumuqi Wuppertal Wuwei Wuxi Wuxue Wuyishan Wuzhong Wuzhou Würzburg Xalapa center in Xiamen Xian Xiangtan Xiangfan Xianning Xiantao Xiaogan Xianyang Xiaoshan Xichang Xilinhaote Xingcheng Xinghua Xingtai Xingyi Xining Xinji Xintai Xinxiang Xinyang Xinyi Xinyu Xinzhou Xochimilco Xuancheng Xuchang Yachiyo Yaizu Yakeshi Yakutsk Yamagata Yamaguchi Yamato, Kanagawa Yamoussoukro Yamunanagar Yan'year Yancheng Yangjiang Yangon (Rangoon) Yangquan Yangzhou Yanji Yantai Yao Yaoundé Yaroslavl Yekaterinburg Yatsushiro Yavatmal Yazd Yelets Yenakiieve Yerevan Yibin Yichang Yichun, Heilongjiang Yichun, Yidu Yima's Yinchuan Yingkou Yingtan Yingcheng Yining Yiwu Yiyang Yixing Yizheng Yogyakarta Yokkaichi Yokohama Yokosuka Yonago Yongan Yongzhou Yonkers, New York York Yoshkar-Ola Yosu Yuanjiang Yueyang Yulin, Guangxi Yulin, Shaanxi Yuma, Arizona Yumen Yuncheng, Shanxi Yuxi Yuyao Yuzhou Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Zaanstad Zabol Zabrze Zacatecas Zagazig Zagreb Zama Zahedan Zamboanga City Zamora of Zanzibar sign on it as second unit director on Hidalgo Zanjan City Zaoyang Zaozhuang Zapopan Zaporizhia Zaragoza Zárate Zaria Zarqa Zelenodolsk Zelenograd Zenica Zhalantun Zhangjiakou Zhangshu Zhangjiagang Zhangjiajie Zhangye Zhangzhou Zhanjiang Zhaoqing Zhaotong Zhaodong Zheleznodorozhny Zhengzhou Zhenjiang Zhongshan Zhoukou Zhoushan Zhuhai Zhuji Zhucheng Zhukovsky Zhuozhou Zhumadian Zhuzhou Zibo Zhytomyr Zielona Góra Zigong Ziguinchor Zinder Zixing Zlatoust Zoetermeer Zrenjanin Zunyi Zuwara Zurich Zwickau involving Willem Matser

 

 

 

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Construction

SPECIFIC WEIGHT MATERIALS

SPECIFIC DENSITY MATERIALS

Recipes CONCRETE, shovels, PAST THREE YEARS SINCE

LABOR WORKS

TRANSPORT COST

EQUIPMENT RENTAL COSTS

ESTIMATE WORKS

COSTS TAXES, opinions, AUTHORIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

Geotechnical STUDY

TECHNICAL EXPERTISE

LABOR CONSTRUCTION DESIGN

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS prices shown do not include VAT

Usually concrete B50, B75, B100, B150, B200, B250, B300, B330, B400, B500, concrete road BcR 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, mortars M4T, M10T, M25T, M50T, M100T, M4Z, M10Z, M25Z, M50Z, M100Z, screed

Aggregates - ballast, sand sort 0-4mm, gravel 4-8mm, gravel 8-16, 16-32 mm, refusal stone 32-64mm, crushed stone (broken)

Vegetable Earth (ground)

Cement, chalk,concrete primer and additives

Prefabricated concrete , concrete pipes with socket DN300, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000 simple and reinforced concrete, plate and pillar concrete fence, base radier, concrete tubes DN800, DN1000 (with the height H= 1m), reduction DN800/600, DN1000/600, rings

Fence panels bordered and electrolytic galvanized steel support columns

Twisted galvanized wire mesh fence,
mesh rabitz, square mesh woven site

OB37 reinforcing steel with smooth profile, PC52 reinforcing steel with periodic profile, BST500S especially periodic profile with increased resistance in execution according to DIN488, diameters ø6, ø8, ø10, ø12, ø14, ø16, ø18, ø20, ø22, ø25, ø28, ø30, ø32

Welded wire nets in profile, executed in accordance with the 488; SR 438/3; SR 438/4, panels with dimensions 5x2m, 6x2M, mesh size 100x100mm, 150x150mm, 200x200mm, thickness 4, 5, 6, 8, 10mm

Profile laminated on construction, stepped joint with wings equal L 20x20x3, 25x25x3, 30x30x3, 40x40x4, 50x50video wall, profile T25, 30.40 and I, steel wide (black flat steel and steel of zinc solution 20x3, 25x3 (4), 30x3 (4.5 ), 40x3 (4), 50x3 (4), square steel

Euro profiles for construction, resistant to weights and heavy loads, type INP, AS FAR AS, UNP, HEA, HEB and hem, quality steel S235, S275, S355, standard of manufacture OF 1025/5 - EN 10034

Black sheet (quality steel S235JR /S275), pickled, ribbed (S235JR), galvanizad (g is the sheet thickness in mm: 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10.12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60 - dimensions over 2mm is for blackplate, respectively striated - material S235JR)

Square pipes pipes and rectangular per linear meter, quality steel: S 235, S 275, S 355, the production standard EN 10219 / EN10305-5

Brick Porotherm, GVP, full, appearance, glass, economic for the walls and portanti neportanti, cement (BCA

Plumbing

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) COPPER - STEEL

EQUIVALENTS OF WATER AND SEWAGE FLOW VARIOUS CONSUMERS

CALCULATED FLOW RATE WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE SYSTEM DEPENDING ON EXTERIOR DIAMETER

UNION WATER - SEWAGE FURNISHINGS

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS prices shown do not include VAT

Reticular polyethylene pipes and fittings by pressing PEX (PE-X) and multilayer with aluminum PEXAL (PEX-AL): tube, equal tee, reduced tee, equal connector, PE-STEEL connection, elbow - with a diameter D 16, 20, 26, 32 mm (INS -insulated pipe, -O2 pipe with oxygen barrier)

Pipes and fittings from polypropylene reticulata (random) ended (PP-R) PN20 WHITE (GRAY) without insertion ended with composite fiber PN20 WHITE (GRAY) and ended with aluminum insert: muffler pipe, tube, elbow, straight fitting ended-OL, reduction, elbow fitting ended-OL, TEU equal, collar - with a diameter D 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 75, 90, 110 mm (gray (white) tube, green fiber composite pipes and aluminum pipes)

Pipes and fittings copper: tube, tee reduced, elbow, reducer, adapter steel-copper, equal tee, detour, socket - with a diameter D 15, 18, 22, 28 mm

Black piping welded steel and black cast iron fittings with black with thread: black pipe welded, heavy duty, dutch connector, elbow, equal tee, socket, nipple - with a diameter D 1/2", 3/4", 1", 1_1/4", 1_1/2", 2" (2_1/2", 3", 4" only for pipes; it is not recommended that threaded joints over 2 ") - 1inch=25.4mm

 

Heating

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

HEATING HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS prices shown do not include VAT Pi

Pipes and fittings from polypropylene reticulata (random) ended (PP-R) PN20 WHITE (GRAY) without insertion ended with composite fiber PN20 WHITE (GRAY) and ended with aluminum insert: muffler pipe, tube, elbow, straight fitting ended-OL, reduction, elbow fitting ended-OL, TEU equal, collar - with a diameter D 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 75, 90, 110 mm (gray (white) tube, green fiber composite pipes and aluminum pipes)

Pipes and fittings copper: tube, tee reduced, elbow, reducer, adapter steel-copper, equal tee, detour, socket - with a diameter D 15, 18, 22, 28 mm

Reticular polyethylene pipes and fittings by pressing PEX (PE-X) and multilayer with aluminum PEXAL (PEX-AL): tube, equal tee, reduced tee, equal connector, PE-STEEL connection, elbow - with a diameter D 16, 20, 26, 32 mm (INS -insulated pipe, -O2 pipe with oxygen barrier)

Black piping welded steel and black cast iron fittings with black with thread: black pipe welded, heavy duty, dutch connector, elbow, equal tee, socket, nipple - with a diameter D 1/2", 3/4", 1", 1_1/4", 1_1/2", 2" (2_1/2", 3", 4" only for pipes; it is not recommended that threaded joints over 2 ") - 1inch=25.4mm

Electrical

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF ELECTRICITY AS A FUNCTION OF RATED VOLTAGE

NETWORKS OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE DEPENDING ON THE TYPE ELECTRICAL LINES

LOW-VOLTAGE NETWORKS DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WORKING VOLTAGE

NETWORKS OF LOW VOLTAGE ACCORDING TO THE CONSUMER

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN SECTION WIRES AND CABLES OF COPPER AND ALUMINUM WITH PVC INSULATION

CALCULATING POWER CONSUMPTION FOR LIGHTING, consumer electronics, ELECTRONICS, HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM, THE FORCE

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS prices shown do not include VAT

Electrical conductors copper type FY with section 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10.16, 25 mmp

Electrical conductors type aluminum AFY with section 1x2.5, 1x4, 1x6, 1x10, 1x16, 1x25 mm2

Copper wiring type CYY, CYY-F, N2XH, NHXH E90 FE180 with sections 3x1.5, 3x2.5, 3x4, 3x6 size - 3x10, 3x16, 4x1.5, 4x2.5, 4x4, 4x6 size - 4x10, 4x16, 4x25, 5x1.5, 5x2.5, 5x4, 5x6 size - 5x10, 5x16, 5x25, 7x1.5, 7x2.5

Air conditioning

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

COOLING HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS prices shown do not include VAT

Pipes and fittings from polypropylene reticulata (random) ended (PP-R) PN20 WHITE (GRAY) without insertion ended with composite fiber PN20 WHITE (GRAY) and ended with aluminum insert: muffler pipe, tube, elbow, straight fitting ended-OL, reduction, elbow fitting ended-OL, TEU equal, collar - with a diameter D 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 75, 90, 110 mm (gray (white) tube, green fiber composite pipes and aluminum pipes)

Pipes and fittings copper: tube, tee reduced, elbow, reducer, adapter steel-copper, equal tee, detour, socket - with a diameter D 15, 18, 22, 28 mm

Black piping welded steel and black cast iron fittings with black with thread: black pipe welded, heavy duty, dutch connector, elbow, equal tee, socket, nipple - with a diameter D 1/2", 3/4", 1", 1_1/4", 1_1/2", 2" (2_1/2", 3", 4" only for pipes; it is not recommended that threaded joints over 2 ") - 1inch=25.4mm

Finishes

NECESSARY RENOVATION MATERIALS

CONSUMPTION revamped MATERIALS

LABOR RENOVATION WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

Interior flooring - laminate parquet, solid wood (oak, acacia, ash), triple stratified, bamboo

Interior flooring - ceramic tile opaque and glossy, marble, granite, natural stone - travertin, cork, linoleum PVC - traffic easy, medium and hard, the carpet

Black sheet (quality steel S235JR /S275), pickled, ribbed (S235JR), galvanizad (g is the sheet thickness in mm: 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10.12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60 - dimensions over 2mm is for blackplate, respectively striated - material S235JR)

Gases

WEIGHTS PIPES, CORRESPONDENCE diameters

CORRESPONDENCE DIAMETERS PIPES (ended) - COPPER - STEEL

INCREMENTS OF PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

USERS FLOW NATURAL GAS (NG)

THE FLOW INSTALLED Qi FOR USERS GN ACCORDING TO THE DN

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORKS

MATERIALS PRICES

INSTACONSTRUCT - MATERIALS prices shown do not include VAT

Black piping welded steel and black cast iron fittings with black with thread: black pipe welded, heavy duty, dutch connector, elbow, equal tee, socket, nipple - with a diameter D 1/2", 3/4", 1", 1_1/4", 1_1/2", 2" (2_1/2", 3", 4" only for pipes; it is not recommended that threaded joints over 2 ") - 1inch=25.4mm

Pipes and fittings copper: tube, tee reduced, elbow, reducer, adapter steel-copper, equal tee, detour, socket - with a diameter D 15, 18, 22, 28 mm

Green area

Unconventional renewable energy.

LABOR WORKS

EQUIPMENT PRICES

ESTIMATE WORK HEAT PUMP ASSEMBLY

MATERIALS PRICES

Garden

INSTACONSTRUCT - EQUIPMENT prices shown do not include VAT

ON GRID systems (delivery electrical energy produced in the network) - inverter photovoltaic panels on-grid, wind turbines with blades, cruise control and inverter, the turbine water, generator, regulators, inverters

Systems OFF GRID (electricity used for lighting and outlets) - photovoltaic panels inverter off-grid, wind turbines with blades, regulator, inverters, with hybrid wind turbine and photovoltaic panels, batteries, inverter, charging regulator

8Aturen halcor Greece tiemme

Italy Zenner bmeters rothenberger elbi plamaflex teraplast feinrohren Italy contemporaneous sanica banninger polix sternum Austria kalde klima apator roinstalatii zumtobel theben Elbe mennekes,Bega Limburg boom Carl Jung Hospital kaiser van standards frankische maico ventilatoren partex wohle count clip finder ritto Dedeman metro Bricostore artsani baumax praktiker MR bricolage leroy merlin habitually hornbach astim nocchi pentair pumps onga Carl Jung Hospital pumpen KSB lowara flygt xylem ebara homa liverani caprari pumps tsurumi jec varisco dab Vogelsang Apollo hemmelmann allweiler J. sihi abs lovara netsch grundfos garvens EMU Gb speck annulled only GEA klimatechnik systemair to Kroll Ontrack kentec Syncro hauraton ruck ventilatoren rehau Romstal company trane elbi varem Audit Office found galmet stiebel eltron.erre ariston ventilair imhoff Landini toshiba york ble wires smoke curtains Coopers wires Ltd ATC sodeca Casals dipet metalpol gemak avk Itron state budget exceeded 66.29 danfoss pentax ble sys hewa oldham industrial scientific corporation prominent international wilo thermador wavin honeywell purator hobas pafsin hydro bg evapco zamboni tesy altal biofan EPP service idro victaulic mefa Lennox interklima hauff technik magyn psi products Gmbh logstor sferaco sectoriel tecofi valrom valplast badger meter Europe Gmbh criber net Siemens zenessis werk the Volvo Honda Iveco fusion biral fourgroup kessel zurn Hughes geberit pluvia B.S. rinnai mcquay of Dietrich wesper landis & gyr aco sanyo doyma LG buderus master atlas Copco tyco idroelettrica flovac novar esser rittal mc bauchemie fantini ferroli teraplast Noah caldaie aquamax elster aeroteh primatech acv cimm krohne samgaz iskraemeco contorgroup J. safe noot korado purmo Hm heizkorper vortice brofer nobel galletti riello viessmann Rosenberg systema emerson hoval wolf kaeser kompressoren desigo jeremias frico veab uniflair hawle hti hilti madel daikin radox franke ideal standard valsir Tenaris Silcotub total gas crises experienced by industry VTS euroheat bianchi midea Aquatec seal aqua whirlpool biotec subtree ORM) related indelec prevectron termostroj protherm novaservis mercor cusbac rhoss whatever coercion. through all that electronics europe Gmbh Bose trox technik schako klima Luft wildeboer INA Schaffer group hth gifas Schneider pracht Uponor pyronova alape air wolf kludi grohe novaservis mepa electric Eaton sabiana Kamstrup France air also envisaged by consortiums, such as Elpreco aqua clean SBR zilmet flamco magra esbe Samsung mark bv leastx automatic systems busch technology ares armaturen socla tonon Forty-Three stared at giacomini woltman Zenner salda western baxi clivet Clint brauen weger sentinel ircat ascenso Schindler Politan fzb hammelmann pratissoli BAC Baltimore aircoil dyson airblade jwc eneria caterpillar John Deere sw umwelttechnik Vogelsang ACP international Celsius flexiva thermocold dantherm VCT Loran olsberg acson eccorad climate action gel avitech isover armacell oventrop rockwool fusiotherm missel Lindab general electric MOELLER Clarke Patterson freylit Walter tosto spa industrial holding s.p.a roccheggiani robatherm viega dyka Hengeler Armstrong euroclima Sika ruukki kingspan wienerberger betterman shall I not disturb knauf Rigips caparol workers at Policolor chemical plant up baumit den braven hormann hewi legrand ABB osram herz keramag cersanit helios rocast, Lincoln electric, Edwards, roseal, rotes, Linde, rehau, manufactured by PVC Trocal, dufa, savana, Edelweiss, deceuninck, MGA, Lafarge, Holcim, Weinberger, tucan, facility exceeds makita, Hitachi, karcher, skil, einhell, gardena, black&decker, DeWalt Power Tools, metabo, husqvarna, polycarbonate, menatwork, Sika, isopan imergas panasonic Hermann Maier leader feroli BUMPING Beretta junkers Bosch LG baltur rielo FBR ICI caldaie, immergas, bono, lamborghini, buderus, radiant, korado, Arctic, Vaillant, viessmann, osram, philiphs, romlux, Elbe, Sidex, Silcotub, Petrotub, Mittal steel, Tenaris, dab, wilo, purmo, haka, valsir, valrom, bianchi, salmson, Hanson, ecoflam, pifati, grundfos, danfoss, hertz, was, Kober, workers at Policolor chemical plant, chimtitan, honeywell, york, therwoolin, Lindab, also envisaged by consortiums, such as Elpreco, isover, matizol, swisspor, Rigips, alpha LAVAL, Dietrich, solaronics, a&b trade co, acson, habitat, nova Florida, radik, chappee, Omnitech, hoval, pensotti, viadrus, joannes, Audit Office found, guillot, carbofuel, erensan, kalard, emel, schafer, aqua terma, styleboiler, sicc, tranter, cimm, fulton, universal, alba, cleavers-brooks, Clayton Industries, biasi, ares armaturen, Armstrong, committed, bianchi, armature, ARCO fittings, sicma, unigas giersch, hotplug, eredue- Audit Office found, Dungs technic, totalgaz, armacell, izocor, bramac, schiedel, velux, hunter, meiser, ABB, tunsgram, general Electrical, Luxten legrand, romcab, sidecar, shall I not disturb bettermann, spirax sarco, Kamstrup, amplo, suchy, stiko, jus primae noctis , groupe rover, rothenberger, rocast, Lincoln electric, Edwards, roseal, rotes, Linde osram, philiphs, romlux, Elbe, Sidex, Silcotub, Petrotub, Mittal steel, Tenaris, Kober, workers at Policolor chemical plant, chimtitan,therwoolin, Lindab, also envisaged by consortiums, such as Elpreco, isover, matizol, swisspor, Rigips, armacell, izocor, bramac, schiedel, velux, hunter, meiser, ABB, tunsgram, General Electric, Luxten legrand, romcab, sidecar, shall I not disturb bettermann, jus primae noctis , groupe rover, rothenberger, rocast, Lincoln electric, Edwards, roseal, rotes, Linde, rehau, manufactured by PVC Trocal, dufa, savana, Edelweiss, deceuninck, MGA, Lafarge, Holcim, Weinberger, tucan, facility exceeds makita, Hitachi, karcher, skil, einhell, gardena, black&decker, DeWalt Power Tools, metabo, husqvarna, polycarbonate, menatwork, Sika, isopan, tegola, Portal, savio, longhi, starway, white-Westinghouse , Whirlpool, Fujitsu, aircool, LG, delonghi, neo-plasma, white Westinghouse, Samsung, klingspor henco Industries step in emmeti viesmann Galetti cuenod saunier duval fondital onmetal opop rbm Demir dokum irsap berke plastik weave CCEE valvex sanha heimeier NMC gree ipb contemporaneous banninger Rodriguez Calderon computherm dune tech chigo nordstar advantech alutronic without having recourse arcol arcotronics artidor ETA b&b electronics beck bernstein betacable BHC camdenboss celem celesco chinfa between China Comar BTI concept Cooper bussmann cosel CRC crown graphic Crydom dacpol service danotherm dbk der ee electrical instrument diotec dr Fischer group Dymo ebg ebmpapst Eidos spa elca ersa estel exepd fandis A FIAMM filec fluxtrol Icar forissier frizlen galltec mela sensortechnik garettcom Hammond helukabel hensel hirschmann HVR icel inventec Infineon international rectifier itt cannon john-guest jovil kemet lamina lantech Lapp Kabel lippmann Lem ls mtron Lumberg m-system Hanny Magnetics marquardt marschner GmbH & CO Mitsubishi electric mk battery MOELLER MTM electrical power nmb Minebea norgren okw omerin omron pack pada engineering srl patlite PEM philips lighting power-one powerex powersem radiall Rafi Beyar rolec sanrex scancon Schneider electric schutzinger seg seifert MTM system semikron semisouth servtrayvou sirio sisel EXIDE sonnenschein SSB steeldesign stego texa pavarini thales thermik twt vester vishay Weller wieland westcode WiMA ziehl chazelles ibf pavimente tiemme systems etalbond saint GOBAIN decorad knauf insulation industry aleco air schell GmbH & Co. KG omb lam bollitori sunsystem icma rubinetterie matrixclima sinusverteiler halm solar energy westech spirovent spirotech boschetti novair maga irsap alukal birth of the Divine Imhotep ceme Adrian group bergerr Regulus lk acaso osby as though enertech EuHP' industry kombi rhyme onmetal steco cruwa kalde greenpro sanha fittings Taconova Hajdu take-over industry Sile ghidini weishaupt romet group Edwards bolder valves amiantit pipe systems solterra controlli cwg Dungs control combustion stoichiometry satronic ICD unigas loos international Parker Lucifer valves division jump" or leap starline valves Oy suntec hp technik kermi reflex salus controls sanica steca taconova thermia varme ab termet to druzstevni zavody drazice strojirna question Eden Ltd heliroma plasticos to hotechnikai es gepipari KFT it's hard to believe jaroslav cankar & SYN protherm atmos energy question Ritter und umwelttechnik GmbH & Co. KG valvulas ARCO sl sociedad transformacion of plasticos s.a. solar thermo newspaper s.r.o. wavin ekoplastik s.r.o. climaveneta're cursed before God!knx association schrack technik primex Cluj turbomach Triveni turbines selnikel choose host bv cwt christiani wassertechnik Gmbh mersen Hexa-cover Vichem group agttherm airfel Artek balma bergtectool Chicago pneumatic Gabrielle Berger CST the Walt dolmar energy feim fima ghibli gross hecht fine Honda irwin Koch bohrer Mesto MTX Oregon pedrollo rubi Oscar stanley team thaler technoflex telwin texas tresz trotec unior waker neuson wasserkonig weka radson guillot chaudieres elco Klockner cuenod CEB SBM mc quay pramac international Bosch makita DeWalt Power Tools fein Hitachi enar Oscar technoflex schwamborn weka team thaler tresz wfm Chicago pneumatics rodcraft koshin daishin pentax pedrollo ebara doosan Lincoln ductile telwin brandoni Toro aquatherm GF Georg Fischer walraven caleffi acson rhoss climate evolution geesa bathroom accessories aparici ibero ceramicas undefasa ceramic y failed graniti fiandre dolomite ceramic salgar fabbian rondine group ICD unigas ceramiche gardenia orchidea Versace design ceramic novellini jacuzzi eko-vimar bianchi Gel fratelli rubinetteria hydrotechnology gruppo biasi anello cling valrom Industrie silmet spa kolarz-leuchten bisazza huppe teuco national forest regie BPB Rigips martplast mesa spann sanotechnick sanex eglo Romania prodexim siniat ariston thermo group chaffoteaux rendamax waldmessner Merck pharmaceutical fat Ltd sc metal to irim Ltd modern furniture teka euromobila AGR: AG AUTOGAS group dedicated tomasetto stag caught einhell gardena international madex kärcher ruris power of nature steinel yalco stanley black & decker of Walt felisatti senco bossong femi fest Ionia bormioli Curver bauscher libbey cambro bisseti matfer bourgeat pasabahce hatria marazzi ceramic then simas Olympia rock laufen aeon kessel ag franke kitchen system aquaform dusar belform ravak wirquin I have to havea word with metaform berloni bagno duravit Villeroy & Boch vidima CCEE xella helios s.a. Macon macofil deutek Fantasy wish-fulfillment gecsat adeplast zentyss comfort semmelrock national Stein Bjorge Haugland+design valcos holding general membranes ARCO professional insulation systems Gerard roofs roto fakro tondach Viking pruszynski bison species belform Koehler riho roltechnik EMCO novabell c. g.b. saime san prospero herberia azteca euro ceramic 2000 alcaplast azp s.r.o. home world ceramic bianca stile pavimenti legno gruppo margaritelli listone take this Line STP insca group FAP ceramiche settecento novabell ceramiche dom ceramiche Ragno supergres fratelli Frattini Daniel rubinetteria paffoni brem artceram kerasan teuco profitable fire kolpa treesse Vasile Dobrescu samo milldue seaway arredi dorica ardeco mobile Gaia uncle Italy apavisa porcelanico aparici atlas Concorde ceramiche piemme halcon ceramicas murexin austrotherm metal included Rakoczi among those who work industry rasch arthema royo hidrobox aquaform aqua bella hansa graff sanindusa af colenco hapam sea Marconi electroceramica insulator change Company inael electrical system to serveron zao polymer insulator appliance Lapp group koncar - electrical Industries Inc. Siemens ABB shall have general electric hapam Hyundai colenco trench HEXFET® passavant roediger Gmbh lifter GMI laser pramac brookthompson reinhausen lovato Koehler electric global power group; Omicron electronics tyco electronics hager scanpump Electroputere Lapp insulators elerom Roman sc retrasib to Sibiu electrotel iproeb to Bistrita sc electroplast to Italian cable company spa icpe actel has spread icmet Craiova sma solar technology ag Schneider outback electrical power technologies alpha group trina victron solar solar energy istar s.r.l. bernt lorentz GmbH & Co KG steca Elektronik Gmbh hakel trade acer HK avarisa BSB power season iproeb electroplast romcab Elbe osram philips Schneider legrand dietzel univolt season-trade brilux Proda bticino elica hi-life pce dablerom globo lighting Eaton erco lutron philips dynalite bebarmatic nedap avi amp netconnect aptus software Avaya baracoda bitdefender Cisco d-link datalogic datamax-o'Neill dell Fujitsu hp guntermann & drunck intermec 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